Thursday, March 31, 2011

Opening Day Baseball New York Highlanders

Title: [Opening Day at Hilltop Park, NY; NY Highlanders (AL) & Phila. Athletics game action (baseball)] Creator(s): Bain News Service, publisher. Date Created / Published: [1908 Apr. 14] Medium: 1 negative : glass ; 5 x 7 in. or smaller. Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-ggbain-00274 (digital file from original neg.)

Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication. There are no known restrictions on the photographs in the George Grantham Bain Collection. Publication and other forms of distribution: No known restrictions.

Credit Line: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, [reproduction number, e.g., LC-B2-1234]

The George Grantham Bain Collection represents the photographic files of one of America's earliest news picture agencies. The collection richly documents sports events, theater, celebrities, crime, strikes, disasters, political activities including the woman suffrage campaign, conventions and public celebrations. The photographs Bain produced and gathered for distribution through his news service were worldwide in their coverage, but there was a special emphasis on life in New York City. The bulk of the collection dates from the 1900s to the mid-1920s, but scattered images can be found as early as the 1860s and as late as the 1930s.

Call Number: LC-B2- 56-3 [P&P] Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA .

Opening Day Baseball New York HighlandersNotes:
* Original data provided by the Bain News Service on the negatives or caption cards: N.Y. Americans vs. Philadelphia, opening game, New York, 4/14/08.
* Forms part of: George Grantham Bain Collection (Library of Congress).
* Corrected title and date based on research by the Pictorial History Committee, Society for American Baseball Research, 2006.

Subjects:
* New York
* baseball

Format:
* Glass negatives.

Collections:
* Bain Collection

Wednesday, March 30, 2011

Messerschmitt Me 262A

DAYTON, Ohio -- Messerschmitt Me 262A at the National Museum of the United States Air Force. (U.S. Air Force photo)

www.nationalmuseum.af.mil is provided as a public service by the National Museum of the United States Air Force, Public Affairs.

Information presented on www.nationalmuseum.af.mil is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credits is requested.

This file is a work of an employee of the U.S. Armed Forces, taken or made during the course of the person's official duties. As a work of the U.S. federal government, the file is in the public domain.

Generally speaking, works created by U.S. Government employees are not eligible for copyright protection in the United States. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office.

Messerschmitt Me 262ADeveloped from a 1938 design by the Messerschmitt company, the Me 262 Schwalbe was the world's first operational turbojet aircraft. First flown under jet power on July 18, 1942, it proved much faster than conventional airplanes. Development problems (particularly its temperamental engines), Allied bombings and cautious Luftwaffe leadership contributed to delays in quantity production.

On July 25, 1944, an Me 262 became the first jet airplane used in combat when it attacked a British photo-reconnaissance Mosquito flying over Munich. As a fighter, the German jet scored heavily against Allied bomber formations. U.S. Army Air Forces bombers, however, destroyed hundreds of Me 262s on the ground. Of the more than 1,400 Me 262s produced, fewer than 300 saw combat. Most Me 262s did not make it to operational units because of the destruction of Germany's surface transportation system. Many of those that did were unable to fly because of lack of fuel, spare parts or trained pilots.

The Me 262A on display was brought to the United States from Germany in July 1945 for flight evaluation. Restored by the 96th Mobile Maintenance Squadron, Kelly Air Force Base, Texas, in 1976-1979, it is painted without operational unit markings as an aircraft that has just left the production line.

Tuesday, March 29, 2011

William H. Seward Secretary of State Seward's Day

Title: [Portrait of Secretary of State William H. Seward, officer of the United States government] Creator(s): Brady National Photographic Art Gallery (Washington, D.C.), photographer. Date Created/Published: [Between 1860 and 1865]

Medium: 1 negative : glass, wet collodion. Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-cwpb-04948 (digital file from original neg.) LC-B8172-1431 (b&w film neg.)

Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication.

Call Number: LC-B813- 1431 A [P&P] Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA.

Notes:
* Civil War photographs, 1861-1865 / compiled by Hirst D. Milhollen and Donald H. Mugridge, Washington, D.C. : Library of Congress, 1977. No. 0874
* Title from Milhollen and Mugridge.
* Forms part of Selected Civil War photographs, 1861-1865 (Library of Congress)

Subjects:
* United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865.
* Seward, William H.

Format:
* Portrait photographs.
* Wet collodion negatives.

Collections:
* Civil War Glass Negatives and Related Prints

Part of: Selected Civil War photographs, 1861-1865 (Library of Congress)

On the evening of March 29,1867, the Russian Minister called at Seward's house and informed him of the receipt of a cablegram reporting the Emperor's consent to the proposition, and then he added that he would be ready to take up the final work the next day, for haste was desirable. With a smile of satisfaction at the news, Seward pushed aside the table where he had been enjoying his usual evening game of whist, and said: "Why wait till tomorrow, Mr. Stoeckl? Let us make the treaty to-night." The needed clerks were summoned; the Assistant Secretary went after Sumner, the chairman of the Senate committee on foreign affairs; the Russian Minister • sent for his assistants; and at midnight all met at the Department of State. By four o'clock in the morning the task was completed.

William H. SewardSeward's most famous achievement as Secretary of State was his acquisition of Alaska from Russia. On March 30, 1867, he completed negotiations for the purchase of 586,412 square miles of territory for $7,200,000, or approximately 2 cents per acre.

The purchase of the land was mocked by the public as Seward's Folly, "Seward's Icebox," and Andrew Johnson's "polar bear garden." Alaska celebrates the purchase on Seward's Day, the last Monday of March.

When asked what he considered to be his greatest achievement as Secretary of State, Seward replied "The purchase of Alaska, but it will take the people a generation to find it out"

TEXT RESOURCES:

Monday, March 28, 2011

The White Rabbit

The King and Queen of Hearts were seated on their throne when they arrived, with a great crowd assembled about them—all sorts of little birds and beasts, as well as the whole pack of cards: the Knave was standing before them, in chains, with a soldier on each side to guard him; and near the King was the White Rabbit, with a trumpet in one hand and a scroll of parchment in the other. In the very middle of the court was a table, with a large dish of tarts upon it. "I wish they'd get the trial done," Alice thought, "and hand 'round the refreshments!"

The judge, by the way, was the King and he wore his crown over his great wig. "That's the jury-box," thought Alice; "and those twelve creatures (some were animals and some were birds) I suppose they are the jurors."

Just then the White Rabbit cried out "Silence in the court!"

"Herald, read the accusation!" said the King.

On this, the White Rabbit blew three blasts on the trumpet, then unrolled the parchment-scroll and read as follows:

"The Queen of Hearts, she made some tarts, All on a summer day; The Knave of Hearts, he stole those tarts And took them quite away!"

"Call the first witness," said the King; and the White Rabbit blew three blasts on the trumpet and called out, "First witness!"

The first witness was the Hatter. He came in with[Pg 44] a teacup in one hand and a piece of bread and butter in the other.

"You ought to have finished," said the King. "When did you begin?"

The Hatter looked at the March Hare, who had followed him into the court, arm in arm with the Dormouse. "Fourteenth of March, I think it was," he said.

"Give your evidence," said the King, "and don't be nervous, or I'll have you executed on the spot."

The White Rabbit
Title: Alice in Wonderland. Publisher: Macmillan, 1898. First Published 1865. Author: Lewis Carroll. Illustrator. Length: 192 pages, with original illustrations by Sir John Tenniel (28 February 1820 – 25 February 1914)

This Image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1923 are copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case 1865) are now in the public domain.

This file is also in the public domain in countries that figure copyright from the date of death of the artist (post mortem auctoris in this case Sir John Tenniel (28 February 1820 – 25 February 1914), and that most commonly runs for a period of 50 to 70 years from December 31 of that year.

Sunday, March 27, 2011

The Tortoise and the Hare

A Hare was one day making fun of a Tortoise for being so slow upon his feet. "Wait a bit," said the Tortoise; "I'll run a race with you, and I'll wager that I win." "Oh, well," replied the Hare, who was much amused at the idea, "let's try and see"; and it was soon agreed that the fox should set a course for them, and be the judge. When the time came both started off together, but the Hare was soon so far ahead that he thought he might as well have a rest: so down he lay and fell fast asleep. Meanwhile the Tortoise kept plodding on, and in time reached the goal. At last the Hare woke up with a start, and dashed on at his fastest, but only to find that the Tortoise had already won the race.

Slow and steady wins the race.

Aesop's Fables A NEW TRANSLATION BY V. S. VERNON JONES WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY G. K. CHESTERTON AND ILLUSTRATIONS BY Arthur Rackham (September 19, 1867 – September 6, 1939) Published by Ballantine & Co., London, 1912.

Rackham was born in London as one of 12 children. At the age of 18, he worked as a clerk at the Westminster Fire Office and began studying part-time at the Lambeth School of Art.

The Tortoise and the HareThis image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF. Works published before 1923, in this case 1851, are now in the public domain.

This image is also in the public domain in countries that figure copyright from the date of death of the artist (post mortem auctoris), in this case Arthur Rackham (September 19, 1867 – September 6, 1939), and that most commonly runs for a period of 50 to 70 years from the last day of that year.

Friday, March 25, 2011

The fox and the crow

A fox once saw a Crow fly off with a piece of cheese in its beak and settle on a branch of a tree. "That's for me, as I am a Fox," said Master Renard, and he walked up to the foot of the tree. "Good-day, Mistress Crow," he cried. "How well you are looking to-day: how glossy your feathers; how bright your eye. I feel sure your voice must surpass that of other birds, just as your figure does; let me hear but one song from you that I may greet you as the Queen of birds.

The crow lifted up her head and began to caw her best but the moment she opened her mouth rhe piece of cheese fell to the ground pnly to be snapped up by Master Fox. "That will do," said he. "That was all I wanted. In exchange for your cheese I will give you a piece of advice for the future — Do not trust flatterers.

The flatterer doth rob by stealth, the victim both of wit and wealth.

Title: The fables of Æsop. Author: Aesop. Editor: Joseph Jacobs. Translated by: Joseph Jacobs. Illustrated by: Richard Heighway. Publisher: Macmillan & co., 1894. Original from: Harvard University. Digitized: Jun 6, 2006. Length: 222 pages. Subjects: Fiction / Fairy Tales, Folklore & Mythology Social Science / Folklore & Mythology

The fox and the crowThis image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF. Works published before 1923, in this case 1851, are now in the public domain.

The Fox and the Grapes

The Fox and the Grapes from Title: The Æsop for Children With pictures by Milo Winter (August 7, 1888- 1956). Author: Æsop. Illustrator: Milo Winter Copyright, 1919, by RAND MCNALLY & COMPANY, CHICAGO.

A Hungry fox saw some bunches of ripe grapes hanging from a trellised vine. He looked at them with longing eyes. He leaped at them again and again, but they were too high for him to reach. Then he tried to pull the vine down from the trellis. Then he tried to climb up the trellis. But it was of no use. He could not get the grapes by any of his tricks. So, at last, quite tired out, he turned away, saying, "Those grapes are not such grapes as I thought they were. I will not take any of them. They are sour. I do not want sour grapes."

Ah, Master Fox! nj we know better than that. We know that you would give a piece of your tail to have some of those very grapes. They are sour grapes to you only because you cannot get them.

This image comes from the Project Gutenberg archives. This is an image that has come from a book or document for which the American copyright has expired and this image is in the public domain in the United States.

This image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF. Works published before 1923, in this case 1851, are now in the public domain.

Thursday, March 24, 2011

Demonstration of protest and mourning for Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire of March 25, 1911

Demonstration of protest and mourning for Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire of March 25, 1911, By an unknown photographer, New York City, New York, April 5, 1911; General Records of the Department of Labor; Record Group 174; National Archives.

On March 25, 1911, fire swept through the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory in New York City, killing 146 employees, most of them women.

This photo was part of the exhibit The Way We Worked, on display at the National Archives in Washington DC in 2006.

This image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF. Works published before 1923, in this case 1911, are now in the public domain.

The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Building, a National Historic Landmark, is located at 23-29 Washington Place in New York City, NY. The property is now used as classrooms and offices by New York University and is not open to the public.

Demonstration of protest and mourning for Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire of March 25, 1911The Asch building--known as the Brown building today--was the home of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory and site of both the first large scale strike of women workers in the country and of one of the worst industrial disasters in American history. Hazardous working conditions were the rule in early 20th-century American industry, and the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory was no exception.

When fire swept through the building in the spring of 1911, locked doors and missing fire escapes contributed to the deaths of 146 workers, most of them young women. Many leapt to their deaths in a vain effort to avoid the flames.

Wednesday, March 23, 2011

Elizabeth Rosemond "Liz" Taylor, DBE (February 27, 1932 – March 23, 2011)

"The problem with people who have no vices is that generally you can be pretty sure they're going to have some pretty annoying virtues."

As quoted in The Seven Deadly Sins (2000) by Steven Schwartz, p. 23

Description: Elizabeth Taylor Argentinean Magazine AD.jpg. Publicity photo of Elizabeth Taylor for Argentinean Magazine, 1947. (Printed in USA). Date: July 1947. Author: CINELANDIA magazine.

This work is in the public domain because it was published in the United States between 1923 and 1977, inclusive, without a copyright notice. This image is in the public domain because the copyright of this photograph, registered in Argentina, has expired. (Both at least 25 years have passed after the photograph was created, and it was first published at least 20 years ago, Law 11.723, Article 34 as amended, and Berne Convention Article 7.

Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor was born in Hampstead, a district of North West London, the second child of Francis Lenn Taylor(1897–1968) and Sara Viola Warmbrodt (1895–1994), who were Americans residing in England. Taylor has an older brother, Howard Taylor born in 1929.

Her parents were originally from Arkansas City, Kansas. Her father was an art dealer and her mother a former actress whose stage name was "Sara Sothern."

Elizabeth TaylorElizabeth Rosemond "Liz" Taylor, DBE (February 27, 1932 – March 23, 2011)

Born: Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor February 27, 1932(1932-02-27) Hampstead, London, England. Died: March 23, 2011(2011-03-23) (aged 79). Los Angeles, California, U.S. Nationality: English-American. Other names: Liz Taylor. Occupation: Actress. Years active: 1942–2003,

Spouse: Conrad Hilton, Jr. (1950–1951), Michael Wilding (1952–1957), Mike Todd (1957–1958), Eddie Fisher (1959–1964), Richard Burton (1964–1974, 1975–1976), John Warner (1976–1982), Larry Fortensky (1991–1996)

Children: 2 sons, 2 daughters. Parents: Francis Lenn Taylor (deceased), Sara Sothern (deceased)

TEXT RESOURCE: Elizabeth Taylor

Tuesday, March 22, 2011

Patrick Henry Give Me Liberty Or Give Me Death

Patrick Henry, March 23, 1775. Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death PODCAST FULL AUDIO OF SPEECH

Peter F. Rothermel's "Patrick Henry Before the Virginia House of Burgesses", a painting of Patrick Henry's "If this be treason, make the most of it!" speech against the Stamp Act of 1765. Date: 1851

This image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF. Works published before 1923, in this case 1851, are now in the public domain.

This image is also in the public domain in countries that figure copyright from the date of death of the artist (post mortem auctoris), in this case Peter F. Rothermel (1817–1895), and that most commonly runs for a period of 50 to 70 years from the last day of that year.

Patrick Henry, March 23, 1775.

No man thinks more highly than I do of the patriotism, as well as abilities, of the very worthy gentlemen who have just addressed the House. But different men often see the same subject in different lights; and, therefore, I hope it will not be thought disrespectful to those gentlemen if, entertaining as I do opinions of a character very opposite to theirs, I shall speak forth my sentiments freely and without reserve. This is no time for ceremony. The question before the House is one of awful moment to this country. For my own part, I consider it as nothing less than a question of freedom or slavery; and in proportion to the magnitude of the subject ought to be the freedom of the debate. It is only in this way that we can hope to arrive at truth, and fulfill the great responsibility which we hold to God and our country. Should I keep back my opinions at such a time, through fear of giving offense, I should consider myself as guilty of treason towards my country, and of an act of disloyalty toward the Majesty of Heaven, which I revere above all earthly kings.

Mr. President, it is natural to man to indulge in the illusions of hope. We are apt to shut our eyes against a painful truth, and listen to the song of that siren till she transforms us into beasts. Is this the part of wise men, engaged in a great and arduous struggle for liberty? Are we disposed to be of the number of those who, having eyes, see not, and, having ears, hear not, the things which so nearly concern their temporal salvation? For my part, whatever anguish of spirit it may cost, I am willing to know the whole truth; to know the worst, and to provide for it.

I have but one lamp by which my feet are guided, and that is the lamp of experience. I know of no way of judging of the future but by the past. And judging by the past, I wish to know what there has been in the conduct of the British ministry for the last ten years to justify those hopes with which gentlemen have been pleased to solace themselves and the House. Is it that insidious smile with which our petition has been lately received? Trust it not, sir; it will prove a snare to your feet. Suffer not yourselves to be betrayed with a kiss. Ask yourselves how this gracious reception of our petition comports with those warlike preparations which cover our waters and darken our land. Are fleets and armies necessary to a work of love and reconciliation? Have we shown ourselves so unwilling to be reconciled that force must be called in to win back our love? Let us not deceive ourselves, sir. These are the implements of war and subjugation; the last arguments to which kings resort. I ask gentlemen, sir, what means this martial array, if its purpose be not to force us to submission? Can gentlemen assign any other possible motive for it? Has Great Britain any enemy, in this quarter of the world, to call for all this accumulation of navies and armies? No, sir, she has none. They are meant for us: they can be meant for no other. They are sent over to bind and rivet upon us those chains which the British ministry have been so long forging. And what have we to oppose to them? Shall we try argument? Sir, we have been trying that for the last ten years. Have we anything new to offer upon the subject? Nothing. We have held the subject up in every light of which it is capable; but it has been all in vain. Shall we resort to entreaty and humble supplication? What terms shall we find which have not been already exhausted? Let us not, I beseech you, sir, deceive ourselves longer. Sir, we have done everything that could be done to avert the storm which is now coming on. We have petitioned; we have remonstrated; we have supplicated; we have prostrated ourselves before the throne, and have implored its interposition to arrest the tyrannical hands of the ministry and Parliament. Our petitions have been slighted; our remonstrances have produced additional violence and insult; our supplications have been disregarded; and we have been spurned, with contempt, from the foot of the throne! In vain, after these things, may we indulge the fond hope of peace and reconciliation. There is no longer any room for hope. If we wish to be free—if we mean to preserve inviolate those inestimable privileges for which we have been so long contending—if we mean not basely to abandon the noble struggle in which we have been so long engaged, and which we have pledged ourselves never to abandon until the glorious object of our contest shall be obtained—we must fight! I repeat it, sir, we must fight! An appeal to arms and to the God of hosts is all that is left us!

They tell us, sir, that we are weak; unable to cope with so formidable an adversary. But when shall we be stronger? Will it be the next week, or the next year? Will it be when we are totally disarmed, and when a British guard shall be stationed in every house? Shall we gather strength by irresolution and inaction? Shall we acquire the means of effectual resistance by lying supinely on our backs and hugging the delusive phantom of hope, until our enemies shall have bound us hand and foot? Sir, we are not weak if we make a proper use of those means which the God of nature hath placed in our power. The millions of people, armed in the holy cause of liberty, and in such a country as that which we possess, are invincible by any force which our enemy can send against us. Besides, sir, we shall not fight our battles alone. There is a just God who presides over the destinies of nations, and who will raise up friends to fight our battles for us. The battle, sir, is not to the strong alone; it is to the vigilant, the active, the brave. Besides, sir, we have no election. If we were base enough to desire it, it is now too late to retire from the contest. There is no retreat but in submission and slavery! Our chains are forged! Their clanking may be heard on the plains of Boston! The war is inevitable—and let it come! I repeat it, sir, let it come.

It is in vain, sir, to extenuate the matter. Gentlemen may cry, Peace, Peace—but there is no peace. The war is actually begun! The next gale that sweeps from the north will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms! Our brethren are already in the field! Why stand we here idle? What is it that gentlemen wish? What would they have? Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty or give me death!

Monday, March 21, 2011

Benito Juárez (Benito Pablo Juárez García)

A few huts of sun-dried bricks, thatched for the most part with straw or reeds, a tiny church, and the ruins of a more splendid temple, erected long years before the coming of Cortez and the Cross, constituted the modest settlement. Fruit trees in profusion among the houses, and cultivated land in the valley beyond, attested at once the industry of the inhabitants and the fertility of the upland soil. And at San Pablo Guelatao, on the 21st of March, 1806, was born to Marcelino Juarez and Brigida Garcia, his wife—Indians both of the pure blood of the Zapotecs—a man child, who received at the village church the Christian names of Benito Pablo.

Marcelino and Brigida were small cultivators, tilling their little fields. The childhood of their son Benito was that of an Indian peasant. At the age of three, indeed, he was deprived of both his parents ; and brought up partly by a grandmother and partly by an uncle, he was at the age of twelve years not only entirely ignorant of letters, but even of the Spanish language.

It appears that these children of the mountain enjoyed in the city of Oaxaca a reputation for honesty and hard work, something similar to that possessed by the modern Gallegos in Madrid or the Auvergnats in Paris; and in 1818 little Benito, sturdy and resourceful after twelve years of life and work among his native hills, made his way, alone and unassisted, from San Pablo to the capital, to seek some humble employment in the household of one of the citizens.

His elder sister had, it seems, already obtained some domestic service, and it is possible he may have intended to share her labours; but he more fortunately found a home in the house of an honest bookbinder, one Antonio Salanueva, who had received the minor orders, and was attached to a confraternity of the Third Order of St. Francis at Oaxaca. The man and boy were mutually pleased with each other, and the young Indian, under the care of his good Christian master, promptly acquired the Castilian language, and gave proofs of an uncommon intelligence, as well as of uncommon industry. Benito, indeed, was no ordinary scholar; but Fray Antonio was no common Franciscan, and under his sympathetic care the orphan child of the mountains forgot none of the best traditions of his race and nation, and grew up from an honest servitor to be an honest student.

Benito Juárez (Benito Pablo Juárez García)Looking east from 6th avenue, (Avenue of the Americas) with Bryant Park and the New York City Public Library in the background.

Inscribed under the left hand, EL RESPETO DERECHO AJENO ES LA PAZ. RESPECT FOR THE RIGHTS OF OTHERS IS PEACE.

and at the base: Benito Juárez 1806 - 1872 President of Mexico (1858 -1872) Born in Guelatao, Oaxaca of humble origins in Guelatao, Oaxaca, Juarez established the foundations of the Mexican Republic. In 1867, he defeated the French invasion, thus preserving the independence of Mexico.

Gift from the people and government of the state of Oaxaca, Mexico, to the City of New York.

Image License: I, (sookietex) the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. This applies worldwide. In case this is not legally possible, I grant any entity the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law.

If These image is subject to copyright in your jurisdiction, i (sookietex) the copyright holder have irrevocably released all rights to it, allowing it to be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, used, modified, built upon, or otherwise exploited in any way by anyone for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial, with or without attribution of the author, as if in the public domain.

TEXT CREDIT: A life of Benito Juarez: constitutional president of Mexico

Sunday, March 20, 2011

Supermoon Harvest Moon Clip Art



Supermoon Harvest Moon Clip Art - On March 19th, a full Moon of rare size and beauty will rise in the east at sunset. It's a super "perigee moon"--the biggest in almost 20 years.

"The last full Moon so big and close to Earth occurred in March of 1993," says Geoff Chester of the US Naval Observatory in Washington DC. "I'd say it's worth a look."

Full Moons vary in size because of the oval shape of the Moon's orbit. It is an ellipse with one side (perigee) about 50,000 km closer to Earth than the other (apogee).

Nearby perigee moons are about 14% bigger and 30% brighter than lesser moons that occur on the apogee side of the Moon's orbit.

"The full Moon of March 19th occurs less than one hour away from perigee--a near-perfect coincidence1 that happens only 18 years or so," adds Chester.

A perigee full Moon brings with it extra-high "perigean tides," but this is nothing to worry about, according to NOAA. In most places, lunar gravity at perigee pulls tide waters only a few centimeters (an inch or so) higher than usual. Local geography can amplify the effect to about 15 centimeters (six inches)--not exactly a great flood.

Harvest Moon Clip Art

Harvest Moon on the #UWS #NYC September 8, 2014 image/editing/sookietex and released into the public domain. More about this image and story at Public Domain Clip Art - http://publicdomainclip-art.blogspot.com/2011/03/on-march-19th-full-moon-of-rare-size.html

Harvest Moon Clip Art

Supermoon Clip Art

Supermoon

Image License: I, (sookietex) the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. This applies worldwide. In case this is not legally possible, I grant any entity the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law.

If These image is subject to copyright in your jurisdiction, i (sookietex) the copyright holder have irrevocably released all rights to it, allowing it to be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, used, modified, built upon, or otherwise exploited in any way by anyone for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial, with or without attribution of the author, as if in the public domain.

Indeed, contrary to some reports circulating the Internet, perigee Moons do not trigger natural disasters. The "super moon" of March 1983, for instance, passed without incident. And an almost-super Moon in Dec. 2008 also proved harmless.

Okay, the Moon is 14% bigger than usual, but can you really tell the difference? It's tricky. There are no rulers floating in the sky to measure lunar diameters. Hanging high overhead with no reference points to provide a sense of scale, one full Moon can seem much like any other.

The best time to look is when the Moon is near the horizon. That is when illusion mixes with reality to produce a truly stunning view. For reasons not fully understood by astronomers or psychologists, low-hanging Moons look unnaturally large when they beam through trees, buildings and other foreground objects. On March 19th, why not let the "Moon illusion" amplify a full Moon that's extra-big to begin with? The swollen orb rising in the east at sunset may seem so nearby, you can almost reach out and touch it.

Don't bother. Even a super perigee Moon is still 356,577 km away. That is, it turns out, a distance of rare beauty.

TEXT CREDIT: Author: Dr. Tony Phillips || Credit: Science@NASA

Supermoon August 10, 2014 image/editing/sookietex and released into the public domain. More about this image and story at Public Domain Clip Art - http://publicdomainclip-art.blogspot.com/2011/03/on-march-19th-full-moon-of-rare-size.html

Supermoon Clip Art

Supermoon Clip Art

Saturday, March 19, 2011

Uncle Tom's Cabin Tom and Eva reading the Bible

Uncle Tom's Cabin or, Life Among the Lowly by Harriet Beecher Stowe, illustrations by Charles Howland Hammatt Billings (1818–1874) is published March 20, 1852.

The friendship between Tom and Eva had grown with the child's growth. It would be hard to say what place she held in the soft, impressible heart of her faithful attendant. He loved her as something frail and earthly, yet almost worshipped her as something heavenly and divine. He gazed on her as the Italian sailor gazes on his image of the child Jesus,— with a mixture of reverence and tenderness; and to humor her graceful fancies, and meet those thousand simple wants which invest childhood like a many-colored rainbow, was Tom's chief delight. In the market, at morning, his eyes were always on the flower-stalls for rare bouquets for her, and the choicest peach or orange was slipped into his pocket to give to her when he came back; and the sight that pleased.

Nor was Eva less zealous in kind offices, in return. Though a child, she was a beautiful reader;— a fine musical ear, a quick poetic fancy, and an instinctive sympathy with what is grand and noble, made her such a reader of the Bible as Tom had never before heard. At first, she read to please her humble friend; but soon her own earnest nature threw out its tendrils, and wound itself around the majestic book; and Eva loved it, because it woke in her strange yearnings, and strong, dim emotions, such as impassioned, imaginative children love to feel.

Tom and Eva were seated on a little mossy seat, in an arbor, at the foot of the garden. It was Sunday evening, and Eva's Bible lay open on her knee. She read,— "And I saw a sea of glass, mingled with fire."

Title: UNCLE TOM'S CABIN; LIFE AMONG THE LOWLY. Author: HARRIET BEECHER STOWE. Published: 1852. Original from: Harvard University. Digitized: Nov 20, 2007.

This image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF. Works published before 1923, in this case 1852, are now in the public domain.

This image is also in the public domain in countries that figure copyright from the date of death of the artist (post mortem auctoris), in this case Charles Howland Hammatt Billings (1818–1874), and that most commonly runs for a period of 50 to 70 years from the last day of that year.

Friday, March 18, 2011

Curtiss "Jenny" JN-3

On March 19, 1916 Eight American Curtiss "Jenny" planes take off in pursuit of Pancho Villa, the first United States air-combat mission in history.

The Curtiss Jenny became America's most famous World War I training airplane. Generally used for primary flight training, some Jennies were equipped with machine guns and bomb racks for advanced training.

The JN series began by combining the best features of the Curtiss "J" and "N" models. A 1915 version, the JN-3, supported Pershing's Punitive Expedition into Mexico in 1916, but the aircraft proved unsuitable for field operations. Curtiss improved the JN-3 and redesignated in the JN-4.

With America's entry into WWI on April 6, 1917, the Signal Corps ordered large quantities of JN-4s, and by the time production was terminated after the Armistice, more than 6,000 had been delivered, the majority of them JN-4Ds.

After WWI, the Army sold hundreds of surplus JN-4s to civilians. The airplane soon became the mainstay of the "barnstormers" of the 1920s, and many Jennies continued flying into the 1930s.

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TECHNICAL NOTES: Engine: Curtiss OX-5 of 90 hp. Maximum speed: 75 mph. Ceiling: 11,000 ft. Span: 43 ft. 7 in. Length: 27 ft. 4 in. Height: 9 ft. 10 in. Weight: 1,430 lbs.

Thursday, March 17, 2011

Irving Berlin (Israel Baline) New York City, circa 1911

Irving Berlin's "Alexander's Ragtime Band." Copyrighted on March 18, 1911.

Israel Baline was born in Russia on May 11, 1888, one of eight children of Moses and Lena Lipkin Baline. His father was a butcher and a cantor in a Jewish synagogue, and provided the family with a meager existence. But one day in 1893, the Cossacks, a band of Russian soldiers, rampaged in on a pogrom, a riot against Jews. Israel's earliest memory was "lying on a blanket by the side of a road, watching (the) house burn to the ground. By daylight the house was in ashes."[The family made a quick exit, knowing that they were breaking the law by leaving without a passport.

The Balines smuggled themselves from town to town, and country to country, and finally boarded the S.S. Rhynland in Antwerp, Belgium bound for New York City. They eventually settled on Cherry Street on the Lower East Side in a basement apartment with no windows or hot water. Israel described his adjustment to life in New York as difficult, partly because “We spoke only Yiddish, and were conspicuous for our „Jew clothes‟.”

The Beilin family settled in the Lower East Side of Manhattan, in a basement apartment with no windows or hot water. Israel "slept under tenement steps, ate scraps, and wore secondhand clothes." After his father died when he was only 8 years old, Israel sold newspapers and sang on the streets for pennies to help support his family. Though he could not read music he taught himself enough piano to begin writing songs. He sold his first song in 1907 at age 19, but a printer's error on the cover gave him the name, Irving Berlin.

Irving Berlin Israel BalineIrving Berlin in New York City, circa 1911.

Image and Text Credit, Ellis Island National Monument - History & Culture (U.S. National Park Service). Ownership: Information created or owned by the NPS and presented on this website, unless otherwise indicated, is considered in the public domain. It may be distributed or copied as permitted by applicable law.

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Berlin described his motivation behind songwriting, "my ambition is to reach the heart of the average American." Never learning to read or play music he used a special piano to help him compose. In 1911 had his first big hit with "Alexander's Ragtime Band," which sparked an international dance craze. Over the years Berlin wrote dozens of plays and films. His song "Blue Skies" was featured in the first movie with sound, The Jazz Singer. Other hits included "White Christmas," "Annie Get Your Gun," and "There's No Business Like Show Business." He later co-founded The American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers. He retired from songwriting in 1962.

Berlin was also well-known for his charity and patriotism, stating "I owe all my success to my adopted country." He supported the war effort during both World Wars and established several foundations in his lifetime. He signed over all royalties from his song "God Bless America" to the Boy Scouts. Berlin was honored many times over the years. He was awarded the Army's Medal of Merit, a Congressional Gold Medal, the Freedom Medal and the Medal of Liberty. A private man all his life, he became a hermit in his later years. His last public appearance was at his 100th birthday celebration in 1988. He died from natural causes a year later.

Wednesday, March 16, 2011

St. Patrick Parade, Fifth Ave., New York 1909

Title: St. Patrick Parade, Fifth Ave., New York, Creator(s): Bain News Service, publisher. Date Created/Published: 1909 (date created or published later by Bain) Medium: 1 negative : glass ; 5 x 7 in. or smaller. Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-ggbain-03218 (digital file from original neg.)

Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication. There are no known restrictions on the photographs in the George Grantham Bain Collection.

Access: Permitted; subject to P&P policy on serving originals.

Reproduction (photocopying, hand-held camera copying, photoduplication and other forms of copying allowed by "fair use"): Permitted; subject to P&P policy on copying. Credit Line: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, [reproduction number, e.g., LC-B2-1234]

Call Number: LC-B2- 670-13 [P&P] Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print

About the George Grantham Bain Collection

The George Grantham Bain Collection represents the photographic files of one of America's earliest news picture agencies. The collection richly documents sports events, theater, celebrities, crime, strikes, disasters, political activities including the woman suffrage campaign, conventions and public celebrations.

St. Patrick Parade, Fifth Ave., New York 1909The photographs Bain produced and gathered for distribution through his news service were worldwide in their coverage, but there was a special emphasis on life in New York City. The bulk of the collection dates from the 1900s to the mid-1920s, but scattered images can be found as early as the 1860s and as late as the 1930s.

Available online are 39,744 glass negatives and a selection of about 1,600 photographic prints for which copy negatives exist.
This represents all of the glass plate negatives the Library holds and a small proportion of the 50,000 photographic prints in the collection. The Library purchased the collection in 1948 from D.J. Culver.

Notes:
* Forms part of: George Grantham Bain Collection (Library of Congress).
* Title from unverified data provided by the Bain News Service on the negatives or caption cards.
* General information about the Bain Collection is available at http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.ggbain

Subjects:
* New York

Format:
* Glass negatives.

Collections:
* Bain Collection

Tuesday, March 15, 2011

Caius Caesar Caligula

37 – Caligula becomes Roman Emperor after the death of his great uncle, Tiberius.

Germanicus, the father of Caius Caesar, and son of Drusus and the younger Antonia, was, after his adoption by Tiberius, his uncle, preferred to the quasstorship five years before he had attained the legal age, and immediately upon the expiration of that office, to the consulship. Having been sent to the army in Germany, he restored order among the legions, who, upon the news of Augustus's death, obstinately refused to acknowledge Tiberius as emperor and offered to place him at the head of the state.

In which affair it is difficult to say, whether his regard to filial duty, or the firmness of his resolution, was most conspicuous. Soon afterwards he defeated the enemy, and obtained the honours of a triumph. Being then made consul for the second time, before he could enter upon his office he was obliged to set out suddenly for the east, where, after he had conquered the king of Armenia, and reduced Cappadocia into the form of a province, he died at Antioch, of a lingering distemper, in the thirtyfourth year of his age, not without the suspicion of being poisoned. For besides the livid spots which appeared all over his body, and a foaming at the mouth; when his corpse was burnt, the heart was found entire among the bones; its nature being such, as it is supposed, that when tainted by poison, it is indestructible by fire

Title: The lives of the Roman emperors and their associates from Julius Cæsar (B. C. 100) to Agustulus (A. D. 476), Volume 1. Editor: J. Eugene Reed. Publisher: Gebbie & co., 1883. Original from: Pennsylvania State University. Digitized: Jan 20, 2010 Subjects: Emperors / History / Ancient / Rome / Roman emperors.

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It was a prevailing opinion that he was taken off by the contrivance of Tiberius, and through the means of Cneius Piso. This person, who was about the same time prefect of Syria, and made no secret of his position being such, that he must either offend the father or the son, loaded Germanicus, even during his sickness, with the most unbounded and scurrilous abuse, both by word and deed; for which, upon his return to Rome, he narrowly escaped being torn to pieces by the people, and was condemned to death by the senate.

It is generally agreed, that Germanicus possessed all the noblest endowments of body and mind in a higher degree than had ever before fallen to the lot of any man; a handsome person, extraordinary courage, great proficiency in eloquence and other branches of learning, both Greek and Roman; besides a singular humanity, and a behaviour so engaging, as to captivate the affections of all about him. The slenderness of his legs did not correspond with the symmetry and beauty of his person in other respects; but this defect was at length corrected by his habit of riding after meals. In battle, he often engaged and slew an enemy in single combat. He pleaded causes, even after he had the honour of a triumph. Among other fruits of his studies, he left behind him some Greek comedies. Both at home and abroad he always conducted himself in a manner the most unassuming. On entering any free and confederate town, he never would be attended by any of his lictors. Whenever he heard, in his travels, of the tombs of illustrious men, he made offerings over them to the infernal deities.

be considered as a vulgar error; and if the heart was found entire, it must have been owing to the weakness of the fire, rather than to any quality communicated to the organ, of resisting the power of that element.

He gave a common grave, under a mound of earth, to the scattered relics of the legionaries slain under Varus, and was the first to put his hand to the work of collecting and bringing them to the place of burial. He was so extremely mild and gentle to his enemies, whoever they were, or on what account soever they bore him enmity, that, although Piso rescinded his decrees, and for a long time severely harassed his dependents, he never showed the smallest resentment, until he found himself attacked by magical charms and imprecations; and even then the only steps he took was to renounce all friendship with him, according to ancient custom, and to exhort his servants to avenge his death, if any thing untoward should befall him.

TEXT CREDIT: The lives of the Roman emperors and their associates from Julius Cæsar (B. C. 100) to Agustulus (A. D. 476), Volume 1

Monday, March 14, 2011

Biset or Wild Rock Pigeon Columba livia

Biset or Wild Rock Pigeon Columba livia. Rocky and precipitous cliffs, particularly those of the sea-coast perforated by caverns, either originating in the nature of the rock itself, or worn and hollowed out by the action of the waves, are the appropriate retreats of the pigeon in its wild or natural state. In this condition it possesses a very extensive geographical distribution throughout the maritime districts of the world, being abundant in most of the Rocky Islands belonging to Africa and Asia, and in those of the Mediterranean, where it swarms in incredible numbers. Upon oar own coasts it is found wherever the nature of the barrier suits its habits, extending as far as the Orkneys, where Low describes it as the inhabitant of all their numerous and extensive caves, retiring to their inmost recesses, and generally beyond the situations selected for nidification by the auks, gulls, and other aquatic fowl.

It is also met with upon the northern and western coasts of Sutherland, the perforated and cavernous rocks which gird the eastern side of Loch Eriboll, and those of the limestone district of Durness, furnishing suitable places of retreat, and again upon the eastern coast of Scotland, it is seen about the rocky steeps of the Isle of Bass, and the bold promontory of St Abb's Head.

Biset or Wild Rock Pigeon Columba livia

Biset or Wild Rock Pigeon Columba livia
The Common Rock Dove found on Manhattan's Upper Westside at 90th street and Broadway Match 14, 2011.

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The supposition of many of our ornithologists that this and the preceding species were identical, has led to considerable confusion in their writings, and produced a mixed sort of description strictly applicable to neither. The distinctions, however, between the species, even in regard to plumage, are such, that, if attended to, no mistake can well arise, and if accompanied by a corresponding attention to their respective habits, the difference becomes still more apparent and convincing. In one we have a bird the frequenter and inhabitant of the woods, where it roosts, breeds, and perches with security and ease upon the trees, like the ring pigeon and other arboreal species; in the other, an inhabitant of caves and the holes of rocks, and which is never known, under any circumstance, to affect the forest or perch upon a tree.

But the rock or wild pigeon is better known to our readers as the inhabitant of the pigeon-house, or, as it is frequently called, the dove-cot, buildings erected expressly for the purpose of containing colonies of these birds. In this state, where they enjoy a perfect freedom of action, and are nearly dependant upon their own exertions for support, they can scarcely be called reclaimed, much less domesticated. Man, indeed, has only taken advantage of certain habits natural to the species, and by the substitution of an artificial for a real cavern, to which the pigeonhouse may be compared, has, without violating or at least greatly infringing upon its natural condition, brought it into a kind of voluntary subjection, and rendered it subservient to his benefit and use.

In its natural state, the plumage of the pigeon is as follows :—Bill blackish-brown ; the nostril membrane red, sprinkled, as it were, with a white powder. The irides pale reddish-orange. The head and throat are bluish-gray. The sides of the neck and upper part of the breast are dark lavender-purple, glossed with shades of green and purplish-red. The lower part of the breast and abdomen are bluish-gray. The upper mandible and wing-coverts are blue-gray. The greater coverts and secondaries are barred with black, and form two broad and distinct bars across the closed wings. The lower part of the back is white ; the rump and tail-coverts bluish-gray. The tail is of a deep gray, with a broad black bar at the end. The legs and feet are pale purplish-red. When closed, the wings reach within half an inch of the end of the tail.

TEXT CREDIT: Pigeons By Prideaux John Selby, Andrew Crichton

Sunday, March 13, 2011

Chief the War Dog K-9 Corps

On March 13, 1942, Under Secretary of War Robert P. Patterson approved Gregory's application and created the K-9 Corps.

United States Marine “Raiders” and their dogs, which are used for scouting and running messages, starting off for the jungle front lines on Bougainville.

Dogs have been associated with the United States Army since its inception, but their role has been primarily that of a mascot or in some other unofficial capacity. Not until World War II did the Army make the connection official. In January 1942, members of the American Kennel Club and other dog lovers formed a civilian organization called Dogs for Defense.

United States Marine Corps K-9


United States Marine corps K-9

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They intended to train dogs to perform sentry duty for the army along the coast of the United States. Aware of this effort, Lieutenant Colonel Clifford C. Smith, chief of the Plant Protection Branch, Inspection Division, Quartermaster Corps, met with his commander, Major General Edmund B. Gregory, and suggested that the Army use the sentry dogs at supply depots. Gregory gave his approval to an experimental program.

Beginning in August 1942, the Quartermaster Corps established dog training centers at Front Royal, VA; Fort Robinson, NE; Cat Island (Gulfport), MS; Camp Rimini (Helena), MT; and San Carlos CA. The K-9 Corps initially accepted for training thirty-two breeds of dogs.

By 1944, however, that list had been reduced to seven: German Shepherds, Doberman Pinschers, Belgian Sheep Dogs, Siberian huskies, farm collies, Eskimo dogs, and Malamutes. Approximately 18,000 dogs reached training centers after examinations by Dogs for Defense. Almost 8,000 of those animals failed exams given at the centers. Reasons for dismissal included excitability when exposed to noise or gunfire, disease, poor sense of smell, and unsuitable temperament.

Check it out Chief! SP4 Bealock and scout dog "Chief" on patrol in Vietnam (Source: RG123S, Vietnam Photos Miscellaneous Collection). Photo by The U.S. Army Military History Institute (USAMHI)

US Army K-9 Corps


Chief the War Dog K-9 Corps

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The Quartermaster Corps trained dog handlers as well as the dogs themselves. Technical Manual 10-396 (1 July 1943) outlined the doctrine to be followed in the training. Normal training time for a dog was eight to twelve weeks. First the animals went through what might be called "basic training" to become accustomed to life in the military. Then the dogs received assignment to a specialized training program--sentry dogs, scout or patrol dogs, messenger dogs, or mine dogs. The Quartermaster Corps established war dog platoons in March 1944 to assist American military forces conducting offensive operations in Europe and the Pacific.

Of the fifteen such platoons organized, seven served in Europe and eight in the Pacific. It has been said that, in the latter theater, the Japanese never ambushed or made a surprise attack on a patrol led by one of the war dogs. The Quartermaster Corps also experimented with training dogs to locate casualties on the battlefield. Dogs were first tested for this at Carlisle Barracks on May 4, 1944. Ultimately, the Army abandoned this program because the dogs did not or could not make a distinction between men not wounded, men who had received wounds, or men who had died.

After World War II, the Military Police Corps took over responsibility for training military dogs. They have continued to serve with distinction in other conflicts. It is estimated that the Army employed 1,500 dogs during the Korean War and 4,000 in the Vietnam War. Currently, the Army has 578 dog teams which have seen service in Iraq and Afghanistan. The courage and loyalty of these dogs have continued to save lives and prevent injuries since creation of the K-9 Corps.

TEXT CREDIT: the United States Army

Saturday, March 12, 2011

Franklin D. Roosevelt FDR first fireside chat

On March 12, 1933, eight days after his inauguration, President Franklin D. Roosevelt gives his first national radio address or "fireside chat," broadcast from the White House.

Address of President Roosevelt by radio, delivered from the President's Study in the White House at 10 PM 04/12/33.

I want to talk for a few minutes with the people of the United States about banking -- with the comparatively few who understand the mechanics of banking but more particularly with the overwhelming majority who use banks for the making of deposits and the drawing of checks. I want to tell you what has been done in the last few days, why it was done, and what the next steps are going to be. I recognize that the many proclamations from State Capitols and from Washington, the legislation, the Treasury regulations, etc., couched for the most part in banking and legal terms should be explained for the benefit of the average citizen. I owe this in particular because of the fortitude and good temper with which everybody has accepted the inconvenience and hardships of the banking holiday. I know that when you understand what we in Washington have been about I shall continue to have your cooperation as fully as I have had your sympathy and help during the past week.

First of all let me state the simple fact that when you deposit money in a bank the bank does not put the money into a safe deposit vault. It invests your money in many different forms of credit-bonds, commercial paper, mortgages and many other kinds of loans. In other words, the bank puts your money to work to keep the wheels of industry and of agriculture turning around. A comparatively small part of the money you put into the bank is kept in currency -- an amount which in normal times is wholly sufficient to cover the cash needs of the average citizen. In other words the total amount of all the currency in the country is only a small fraction of the total deposits in all of the banks.

Franklin D. Roosevelt FDR first fireside chatPhotograph of FDR delivering his first Fireside Chat. From the collections of the Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum. This item is in the public domain. Resource Item #49 for Sunday, March 12, 1933.

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What, then, happened during the last few days of February and the first few days of March? Because of undermined confidence on the part of the public, there was a general rush by a large portion of our population to turn bank deposits into currency or gold. -- A rush so great that the soundest banks could not get enough currency to meet the demand. The reason for this was that on the spur of the moment it was, of course, impossible to sell perfectly sound assets of a bank and convert them into cash except at panic prices far below their real value.

By the afternoon of March 3 scarcely a bank in the country was open to do business. Proclamations temporarily closing them in whole or in part had been issued by the Governors in almost all the states.

It was then that I issued the proclamation providing for the nation-wide bank holiday, and this was the first step in the Government's reconstruction of our financial and economic fabric.
The second step was the legislation promptly and patriotically passed by the Congress confirming my proclamation and broadening my powers so that it became possible in view of the requirement of time to entend (sic) the holiday and lift the ban of that holiday gradually. This law also gave authority to develop a program of rehabilitation of our banking facilities. I want to tell our citizens in every part of the Nation that the national Congress -- Republicans and Democrats alike -- showed by this action a devotion to public welfare and a realization of the emergency and the necessity for speed that it is difficult to match in our history.

The third stage has been the series of regulations permitting the banks to continue their functions to take care of the distribution of food and household necessities and the payment of payrolls.

This bank holiday while resulting in many cases in great inconvenience is affording us the opportunity to supply the currency necessary to meet the situation. No sound bank is a dollar worse off than it was when it closed its doors last Monday. Neither is any bank which may turn out not to be in a position for immediate opening. The new law allows the twelve Federal Reserve banks to issue additional currency on good assets and thus the banks that reopen will be able to meet every legitimate call. The new currency is being sent out by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing in large volume to every part of the country. It is sound currency because it is backed by actual, good assets.

A question you will ask is this - why are all the banks not to be reopened at the same time? The answer is simple. Your Government does not intend that the history of the past few years shall be repeated. WE do not want and will not have another epidemic of bank failures.

As a result we start tomorrow, Monday, with the opening of banks in the twelve Federal Reserve Bank cities -- those banks which on first examination by the Treasury have already been found to be all right. This will be followed on Tuesday by the resumption of all their functions by banks already found to be sound in cities where there are recognized clearinghouses. That means about 250 cities of the United States.

On Wednesday and succeeding days banks in smaller places all through the country will resume business, subject, of course, to the Government's physical ability to complete its survey. It is necessary that the reopening of banks be extended over a period in order to permit the banks to make applications for necessary loans, to obtain currency needed to meet their requirements and to enable the Government to make common sense checkups.

Let me make it clear to you that if your bank does not open the first day you are by no means justified in believing that it will not open. A bank that opens on one of the subsequent days is in exactly the same status as the bank that opens tomorrow.

I know that many people are worrying about State banks not members of the Federal Reserve System. These banks can and will receive assistance from member banks and from the Reconstruction Finance Corporation. These state banks are following the same course as the national banks except that they get their licenses to resume business from the state authorities, and these authorities have been asked by the Secretary of the Treasury to permit their good banks to open up on the same schedule as the national banks. I am confident that the state banking departments will be as careful as the National Government in the policy relating to the opening of banks and will follow the same broad policy.

It is possible that when the banks resume a very few people who have not recovered from their fear may again begin withdrawals. Let me make it clear that the banks will take care of all needs -- and it is my belief that hoarding during the past week has become an exceedingly unfashionable pastime. It needs no prophet to tell you that when the people find that they can get their money -- that they can get it when they want it for all legitimate purposes -- the phantom of fear will soon be laid. People will again be glad to have their money where it will be safely taken care of and where they can use it conveniently at any time. I can assure you that it is safer to keep your money in a reopened bank than under the mattress.

The success of our whole great national program depends, of course, upon the cooperation of the public -- on its intelligent support and use of a reliable system.

Remember that the essential accomplishment of the new legislation is that it makes it possible for banks more readily to convert their assets into cash than was the case before. More liberal provision has been made for banks to borrow on these assets at the Reserve Banks and more liberal provision has also been made for issuing currency on the security of those good assets. This currency is not fiat currency. It is issued only on adequate security -- and every good bank has an abundance of such security.

One more point before I close. There will be, of course, some banks unable to reopen without being reorganized. The new law allows the Government to assist in making these reorganizations quickly and effectively and even allows the Government to subscribe to at least a part of new capital which may be required.

I hope you can see from this elemental recital of what your government is doing that there is nothing complex, or radical in the process.

We had a bad banking situation. Some of our bankers had shown themselves either incompetent or dishonest in their handling of the people's funds. They had used the money entrusted to them in speculations and unwise loans. This was of course not true in the vast majority of our banks but it was true in enough of them to shock the people for a time into a sense of insecurity and to put them into a frame of mind where they did not differentiate, but seemed to assume that the acts of a comparative few had tainted them all. It was the Government's job to straighten out this situation and do it as quickly as possible -- and the job is being performed.

I do not promise you that every bank will be reopened or that individual losses will not be suffered, but there will be no losses that possibly could be avoided; and there would have been more and greater losses had we continued to drift. I can even promise you salvation for some at least of the sorely pressed banks. We shall be engaged not merely in reopening sound banks but in the creation of sound banks through reorganization. It has been wonderful to me to catch the note of confidence from all over the country. I can never be sufficiently grateful to the people for the loyal support they have given me in their acceptance of the judgment that has dictated our course, even though all of our processes may not have seemed clear to them.

After all there is an element in the readjustment of our financial system more important than currency, more important than gold, and that is the confidence of the people. Confidence and courage are the essentials of success in carrying out our plan. You people must have faith; you must not be stampeded by rumors or guesses. Let us unite in banishing fear. We have provided the machinery to restore our financial system; it is up to you to support and make it work.

It is your problem no less than it is mine. Together we cannot fail.

TEXT CREDIT: fdrlibrary.marist.edu/

Friday, March 11, 2011

Tsunami damage

This great earthquake and ensuing tsunami took 128 lives (tsunami 113, earthquake 15), and caused about $311 million in property loss. Earthquake effects were heavy in many towns, including Anchorage, Chitina, Glennallen, Homer, Hope, Kasilof, Kenai, Kodiak, Moose Pass, Portage, Seldovia, Seward, Sterling, Valdez, Wasilla, and Whittier.

Anchorage, about 120 kilometers northwest of the epicenter, sustained the most severe damage to property. About 30 blocks of dwellings and commercial buildings were damaged or destroyed in the downtown area. The J.C. Penny Company building was damaged beyond repair; the Four Seasons apartment building, a new six-story structure, collapsed; and many other multistory buildings were damaged heavily. The schools in Anchorage were almost devastated. The Government Hill Grade School, sitting astride a huge landslide, was almost a total loss. Anchorage High School and Denali Grade School were damaged severely. Duration of the shock was estimated at 3 minutes.

This shock generated a tsunami that devasted many towns along the Gulf of Alaska, and left serious damage at Alberni and Port Alberni, Canada, along the West Coast of the United States (15 killed), and in Hawaii. The maximum wave height recorded was 67 meters at Valdez Inlet. Seiche action in rivers, lakes, bayous, and protected harbors and waterways along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana and Texas caused minor damage. It was also recorded on tide gages in Cuba and Puerto Rico.

Tsunami damage at Kodiak, Alaska, following the March 27, 1964 Good Friday earthquake.

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An International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) studying the effects of the December 26 tsunami on Indonesia's island of Sumatra documented wave heights of 20 to 30 m (65 to 100 ft) at the island's northwest end and found evidence suggesting that wave heights may have ranged from 15 to 30 m (50 to 100 ft) along a 100-km (60-mi) stretch of the northwest coast. These wave heights are higher than those predicted by computer models made soon after the earthquake that triggered the tsunami. "Groundtruthing" the models, which are used to forecast tsunamis for early-warning systems and long-term planning efforts, was one of the main goals of the scientific survey.

Tsunami damageA mosque is left standing amid the rubble in Banda Aceh. Several mosques survived and may have been saved by the open ground floor that is part of their design. The tsunami waves reached the middle of the second floor. Photograph by Guy Gelfenbaum, USGS.

Copyrights and Credits: USGS authored or produced data and information are considered to be in the U.S. public domain. Use of appropriate byline / photo / image credit is requested.

Thursday, March 10, 2011

Pigeons Blue Rock Dove (Columba livia)

The Blue Rock Dove, Columba livia, being the origin from whence all our numerous domestic varieties have sprung, demands at our hands a full description of its structure, markings, and habits. It is not the good fortune of many naturalists to have had similar opportunities of observing this beautiful bird in its feral condition to those that fell to the lot of that ardent ornithologist Macgillivray. As his description of the Rock Dove is unquestionably the best that has ever appeared, we shall freely avail ourselves of it in this chapter, and this the more readily as the admirable work from which we extract, " The History of British Birds," has been long out of print.

"The Rock Dove," writes Macgillivray, " is a very beautiful bird, although its style of colouring is less gaudy than that of many foreign species. It is of a compact form, the body being rather full, the neck rather short, the head small, the feet short and strong, the wings rather long, the tail of moderate length.

"The bill is short, slender, and straight; the nasal membrane scurfy, the outline of the upper mandible straight for half its length, then arched and turned down; the edges soft at the base, the tip compressed, with the edges inflected; the lower mandible weak at the base, its sides nearly erect, the edges towards the end sharp, and the tip obtuse. Both mandibles are deeply concave internally. The mouth is only four-twelfths of an inch across. The tongue is very slender, seven and a half-twelfths in length, emarginate at the base, horny towards the end, and pointed.

Title: Pigeons. Authors: Prideaux John Selby, Andrew Crichton. Publisher: W.H. Lizars, 1843. Original from: the New York Public Library. Digitized: Nov 10, 2009. Length: 228 pages. Subjects: Nature / Birds & Birdwatching Pigeons.

By Edward Lear (May 12, 1812 – January 29, 1888) was an English artist, illustrator

This image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.

This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF. Works published before 1923 (in this case 1843.) are now in the public domain. and also in countries that figure copyright from the date of death of the artist (post mortem auctoris) in this case Edward Lear (May 12, 1812 – January 29, 1888) and that most commonly run for a period of 50 to 70 years from that date.

The eyes are rather small; the eyelids bare, and having in their vicinity a bare space of considerable extent. The nostrils are linear, wider anteriorly, two and a half-twelfths long. The aperture of the ear is roundish or obliquely oblong, a line and a half in diameter.

The tarsi, which are very short, and feathered anteriorly one-third down, have five entire and two lower divided scales, their hind part soft, without scales, but scurfy. The first toe has six, the second eight, the third fourteen, the fourth eleven scales. The claws are arched in the third of a circle, compressed, rather sharp.

The plumage is generally compact and short; on the abdomen downy and blended. The feathers are mostly ovate and rounded ; those of the lower part of the neck all round have their filaments flattened and shining. The wings are rather long and pointed; the primaries, or first ten flight feathers, are tapering; the second is the longest, the first almost equal in length, the third considerably shorter ; the secondaries are twelve in number, short, and end obliquely. The tail is straight, slightly rounded, the feathers broad and abruptly rounded.

The horny part of the bill is brownish-black. The iris of the eye is bright yellowish-red; the bare space around the eye flesh-coloured. The tarsi and toes are carmine-purple; the claws dark greyish-brown or black.

The general colour of the plumage is light greyish-blue, the lower parts being as deeply coloured as the upper. The middle of the neck all round is splendent with green, its lower part with purplish-red. The lower part of the back and the upper part of the sides, from near the shoulders to near the tail, are pure white, as are the lower wing-coverts and axillaries. The primaries and their coverts are brownish-grey on the outer web, the former dusky towards the end, as are the outer secondaries. There are two broad bars of black on the wing, one extending over the six inner secondary quills, the other over the secondary coverts, the outer two excepted. The tail has a broad terminal band of black, and the outer web of each lateral feather is white. The downy part of the feathers is greyish-white, excepting on the white part of the back, where it is pure white.

Among the vast numbers of undoubtedly wild birds of this species which I have seen, I have not observed any remarkable variations of form or colour. The darkcoloured, purple, and white individuals, which are occasionally seen consorting with the wild doves, or residing in maritime caves or rocks, are in all probability domestic birds that have betaken themselves to the original mode of life of the species. As the moulting season approaches, the blue tint becomes much paler, especially on the wings. The outer primary quills are often tinged with brown, in consequence of the bird's striking the ground with its wings when commencing its flight; and the bill is frequently more or less crusted with earth or mud. Individuals vary in length from 18 to 14 inches, and in the extent of their wings from 24 to 27.

TEXT CREDIT: Pigeons By William Bernhard Tegetmeier

Wednesday, March 09, 2011

USS Monitor and CSS Virginia "Merrimac"

USS Monitor and CSS Virginia "Merrimac" Photo #: NH 79549-KN (Color)

Combat Naval Livre sur la Rade de Hampton entre l'Escadre Federale et une Division de la Marine Confederee"

Colored lithograph by LeBreton, after a French officer's sketch, published in Paris, circa 1862. It depicts the 9 March 1862 battle between CSS Virginia (called "Merrimac" on the print) and USS Monitor.

Also shown are CSS Jamestown (left distance), CSS Yorktown (center distance); USS Congress (right center distance); USS Cumberland (sunken in right center distance) and USS Minnesota (right). Congress had actually been set afire and destroyed by the Virginia on the previous day.

Courtesy of the U.S. Navy Art Collection, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph. This is a World Wide Web site for official information about the Naval History and Heritage Command (NHHC) and naval history. It is provided as a public service by the NHHC. The purpose is to provide information and news about the Naval History and Heritage Command and naval history to the general public.

USS Monitor and CSS Virginia MerrimacAll information on this site is in the public domain and may be distributed or copied unless otherwise specified. Use of appropriate byline / photo / image credits is requested.

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DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY -- NAVAL HISTORICAL CENTER 805 KIDDER BREESE SE -- WASHINGTON NAVY YARD WASHINGTON DC 20374-5060.

Tuesday, March 08, 2011

Mardi Gras Parade, New Orleans, Louisiana

Mardi Gras Parade, New Orleans, Louisiana. Public Domain ClipArt Stock Photos and Images. Title: Mardi Gras Parade, New Orleans, Louisiana, a few months after Hurricane Katrina.

Creator(s): Highsmith, Carol M., 1946-, photographer. Date Created / Published: 2006 March 1. Medium: 1 photograph : digital, TIFF file, color. Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-highsm-04033 (original digital file)

Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication. Ms. Highsmith has stipulated that her photographs are in the public domain. Call Number: LC-DIG-highsm- 04323 (ONLINE) [P and P] Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print.

Notes: Title, date, and subjects provided by the photographer. Credit line: Carol M. Highsmith's America, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. Gift and purchase; Carol M. Highsmith; 2009; (DLC/PP-2010:031). Forms part of: Carol M. Highsmith's America Project in the Carol M. Highsmith Archive.

Call Number: LC-DIG-highsm- 04033 (ONLINE) [P and P] Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print

Notes:
* Title, date, and subjects provided by the photographer.
* Credit line: Carol M. Highsmith's America, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.
* Gift and purchase ; Carol M. Highsmith; 2009; (DLC/PP-2010:031).
* Forms part of Carol M. Highsmith's America Project in the Carol M. Highsmith Archive.
* Photographer's choice (America project).

Mardi Gras Parade, New Orleans, Louisiana

Subjects: * United States--Louisiana--New Orleans. * Mardi Gras. * America.

Format: * Digital photographs--Color--2000-2010.

Collections: * Highsmith (Carol M.) Archive

Part of: Highsmith, Carol M., 1946- Carol M. Highsmith Archive.