Saturday, April 30, 2011

Tornado

Photo by Daphne Zaras from The National Severe Storms Laboratory: Norman, Oklahoma May 3, 1999 at 1:30 p.m. the initial stages of the storm that produced a continuous, deadly tornado which tracked from near Chickasha to Moore and Del City in the Oklahoma City metro area.

The storm was doing what scientists call "cycling": the original circulation had spun off toward the back side of the storm while a new circulation formed. The new circulation became the third, or possibly fouth tornado produced by the storm, and also was responsible for what became the Chickasha-Moore-Del City, Ok tornado.

The second, western storm had already produced a tornado and was clearly going to continue to produce tornadoes.VORTEX-99 intercepted 4 to 6 tornadoes on the second storm, for a total count of approximately 12 tornadoes on two storms.

Description: One of several tornadoes observed by the en:VORTEX-99 team on May 3, 1999, in central Oklahoma. Note the tube-like condensation funnel, attached to the rotating cloud base, surrounded by a translucent dust cloud.

TornadoInformation presented on these pages is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline / photo / image credits is requested.

This file is a work of an employee of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, taken or made during the course of the person's official duties. As a work of the U.S. federal government, the file is in the public domain.

Generally speaking, works created by U.S. Government employees are not eligible for copyright protection in the United States. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office.

Friday, April 29, 2011

Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Coronation portrait

Description: Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Coronation portrait, June 1953, London, England. Credit: Library and Archives Canada / K-0000047. Date: June 1953.

Author: Unknown photographer, National Film Board of Canada: Still Photography Division.

This Canadian work is in the public domain in Canada because its copyright has expired due to the following: it was subject to Crown copyright and was first published more than 50 years ago.

Terms of use, Credit: Library and Archives Canada / K-0000047. Restrictions on use: Nil. Copyright: Expired.

Additional information: Colour transparency available / Transparent couleur disponible. Source: Government. Other system control no.: DAPDCAP82719. MIKAN no.: 3242153.

The Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II the ascended monarch, was crowned Queen of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Ceylon, Pakistan and Head of the Commonwealth.

Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Coronation portraitElizabeth ascended the thrones upon the death of her father, King George VI on February 6, 1952, and was proclaimed queen by her privy and executive councils shortly afterward. The coronation was held more than a year after the accession, on June 2, 1953. This followed the long-standing tradition that a festival such as a coronation was inappropriate during the period of mourning that followed the death of the preceding sovereign. In the ceremony, Elizabeth swore an oath to uphold the laws of her nations and to govern the Church of England.

Thursday, April 28, 2011

William Randolph Hearst

William Randolph Hearst (April 29, 1863 – August 14, 1951) San Francisco, California.

Title: HEARST, WILLIAM RANDOLPH Creator(s): Harris & Ewing, photographer. Date Created/Published: [between 1905 and 1945] Medium: 1 negative : glass ; 8 x 10 in. or smaller. Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-hec-17671 (digital file from original negative)

Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication. This IMAGE (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case c1905) are now in the public domain.

The photographic firm of Harris & Ewing, Inc. gave its photographic negatives to the Library in 1955. The Instrument of Gift included restrictions which have now expired. In addition, the Library acquired from various sources photographic prints taken by Harris & Ewing. Copyrights were placed on some of these photographs, but the copyrights have expired.

Call Number: LC-H25- 28275-D [P&P] Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print

Notes:
* Title from unverified caption data received with the Harris & Ewing Collection.
* Date span based on active dates of Harris & Ewing, Inc.
* Copy. Portrait series.
* Gift; Harris & Ewing, Inc. 1955.
* General information about the Harris & Ewing Collection is available at http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.hec
* Temp. note: Batch three.

Format:
* Glass negatives.

Collections:
* Harris & Ewing Collection

Wednesday, April 27, 2011

Muhammad Ali Cassius Marcellus Clay, Jr.

Muhammad Ali (born Cassius Marcellus Clay, Jr.; January 17, 1942) Appearing for his scheduled induction into the U.S. Armed Forces on April 28, 1967 in Houston, refused three times to step forward at the call of his name. After being warned he was committing a felony punishable by five years in prison and a fine of $10,000. Ali Once more refused to step forward when his name was called. As a result, he was arrested and the New York State Athletic Commission suspended his boxing license and stripped him of his title.

Title: [Muhammad Ali, bust portrait] / World Journal Tribune photo by Ira Rosenberg. Creator(s): Rosenberg, Ira, photographer. Date Created / Published: 1967. Medium: 1 photographic print. Reproduction Number: LC-USZ62-115435 (b&w film copy neg.)

Rights Advisory: No copyright restriction known. Staff photographer reproduction rights transferred to Library of Congress through Instrument of Gift.

This photograph is a work for hire created prior to 1968 by a staff photographer at New York World-Telegram & Sun. It is part of a collection donated to the Library of Congress. Per the deed of gift, New York World-Telegram & Sun dedicated to the public all rights it held for the photographs in this collection upon its donation to the Library. Thus, there are no known restrictions on the usage of this photograph.

Muhammad Ali Cassius Marcellus Clay, Jr.Call Number: NYWTS - BIOG--Clay, Cassius -- Boxer -- Portraits [P&P] [P&P]

Notes:
* NYWT&S staff photo.
* New York World-Telegram and the Sun Newspaper Photograph
Collection.

Subjects:
* Ali, Muhammad,--1942-

Format:
* Photographic prints--1960-1970.
* Portrait photographs--1960-1970.

Collections:
* Miscellaneous Items in High Demand

Tuesday, April 26, 2011

John James Audubon

John James Audubon (Jean-Jacques Audubon) (April 26, 1785 – January 27, 1851) was a man of one idea, an enthusiast and devotee to his single chosen subject of fascinated study.

His devotion to that study was strangely unselfish and even self-sacrificing. To it he gave time, toil, the endurance of hardship, and an utter disregard of personal well-being throughout long years.

In all this, he seems to have had no idea whatever of gain, or even of reputation. It was not, indeed, until he was a man of middle age that he seems ever to have thought of turning to any practical account the results of his long years of diligent endeavor.

He was the son of a French naval officer, and was born in Louisiana, May 4, 178o. His father thought to train him for a career similar to his own as an officer in the French navy, but the boy from his earliest childhood manifested a passion for natural history which was not only absorbing but strangely exclusive of interest in anything else.

As a mere child he was a student of animals and birds, but more particularly of birds. It was his habit o make drawings of them and to color these, when he could, as faithfully as his untrained eye and hand would permit. In view of his later eminence in this department, it seems a special pity that he was modest while a boy, and burned those juvenile efforts, which, had they been preserved, would have had an interest peculiar to themselves, and quite inestimable.

The making of these pictures began soon after his early infancy was past. The passion that inspired them seems to have been born with the boy. It was observed by his parents while he was yet in pinafores.

It was impossible to educate such a boy in any but the one direction of his own choice, and his father, wisely realizing this, sought to make a painter of him. To that end he placed him as a student with David, who was then foremost among painters, and especially notable for his capacity to instruct young pupils, particularly in the art of drawing.

But young Audubon took little interest in the work assigned him in the studio. Following his instincts, instead, he spent the time he should have given to the study of perspective in wandering through the woods and fields, and making more and more intimate acquaintance with his friends, the birds. These he portrayed in preference to the subjects that David set for him to study.

When young Audubon was seventeen years of age, his father abandoned all effort to give him a regular education, even in art, and sent him to live the wild life that he preferred, on a farm which he owned near Philadelphia. Here began that wonderful collection of birds and eggs which made Audubon's name famous in after years. Here, too, began in earnest his work of painting portraits of his specimens, though to him it did not present itself as work, or impress him in any sense as a matter of serious endeavor. He pictured his birds with fidelity because he loved them, taking no thought whatever for any use that might be made of his pictures.

Artist: John Syme (1795 - 1861). Title: John James Audubon. Date: 1826. Medium: Oil on canvas. Dimensions: 90.2 × 69.8 cm (35.51 × 27.48 in) Current location: White House, Washington, D.C., United States

Notes: White House copy of the 1826 painting Notes by Kloss, William, et al. Art in the White House: A Nation's Pride. Washington, D.C.: The White House Historical Association, 2008:

"On Monday, November 27, 1826, Audubon recorded in his journal that he had to 'stand up' for a portrait, wearing his wolf-skin coat at [William H.] Lizars' request . . . . On November 30 the portrait was finished . . . . Although Audubon questioned the resemblance, it is only in a slight emphasis of the length of the head over its breadth that the artist deviated from his model.

This is borne out by comparison with Audubon's Self-Portrait (private collection) made two months earlier. As for his 'enraged Eagle' eyes, they were commented upon by others. Together with his beaklike nose and flowing hair, they made and indelible impression upon all who met the artist- naturalist . . . ."

Source / Photographer: The White House Historical Association.

This IMAGE (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case 1826) are now in the public domain.

This file is also in the public domain in countries that figure copyright from the date of death of the artist (post mortem auctoris) in this case John Syme (1795 - 1861), and that most commonly runs for a period of 50 to 70 years from December 31st of that year.

TEXT CREDIT: The American immortals: the record of men who by their achievement in statecraft, war, science, literature, art, law and commerce have created the American republic, and whose names are inscribed in the Hall of fame

Monday, April 25, 2011

Robinson Crusoe on Raft

Robinson Crusoe is first published by Author Daniel Defoe on April 25, 1719.

I came back to my raft, and fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me the rest of that day; and what to do with myself at night, I knew not, nor indeed where to rest; for I was afraid to lie down on the ground, not knowing but some wild beast might devour me, though, as I afterwards found, there was really no need for those fears. However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with the chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and made a kind of a hut for that night's lodging; as for food, I yet saw not which way to supply myself, except that I had seen two or three creatures like hares run out of the woods where I shot the fowl.

I now began to consider, that I might yet get a great many things out of the ship, which would be useful to me, and particularly some of the rigging and sails, and such other things as might come to land; and I resolved to make another voyage on board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that the first storm that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart till I got everything out of the ship that I could get. Then I called a council, that is to say, in my thoughts, whether I should take back the raft, but this appeared impracticable; so I resolved to go as before, when the tide was down; and I did so, only that I stripped before I went from my hut, having nothing on but a checkered shirt and a pair of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft, and having had experience of the first, I neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard; but yet I brought away several things very useful to me; as, first, in the carpenter's store I found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and above all that most useful thing called a grindstone. All these I secured, together with several things belonging to the gunner, particularly two or three iron crows, and two barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets, and another fowling-piece, with some small quantity of powder more; a large bag full of small-shot, and a great roll of sheet lead; but this last was so heavy, I could not hoist it up to get it over the ship's side. Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that I could find, and a spare fore-top sail, a hammock, and some bedding, and with this I loaded my second raft, and brought them all safe on shore, to my very great comfort.

Robinson Crusoe on RaftRobinson Crusoe and Raft by Carl Offterdinger (January 8, 1829 Stuttgart, January 12 1889 Stuttgart ) German illustrator.

This image JH Campe Robinson. Ein für Kinder Lesebuch von Joachim Heinrich Campe. With 6 large color illustrations of C. Offterdinger and 23 illustrations in the text of W. Zweigle. - 17th edition .- Stuttgart: 1898 Edited by Wilhelm Effenberger.

This IMAGE (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case 1898) are now in the public domain.

This file is also in the public domain in countries that figure copyright from the date of death of the artist (post mortem auctoris) in this case Carl Offterdinger (January 8, 1829 - January 12 1889, and that most commonly runs for a period of 50 to 70 years from December 31st of that year.

TEXT CREDIT: Robinson Crusoe

Sunday, April 24, 2011

Easter parade Fifth Avenue New York City

Elegantly dressed New Yorkers on Fifth Avenue, Easter morning, 1906. ARC Identifier 535711 / Local Identifier 208-EX-237-1. Item from Record Group 208: Records of the Office of War Information, 1926 - 1951.

Creator(s): Office for Emergency Management. Office of War Information. Overseas Operations Branch. New York Office. News and Features Bureau. Picture Division. Exhibit Section. (1942 - 1945) Type(s) of Archival Materials: Photographs and other Graphic Materials.

Contact(s): Still Picture Records Section, Special Media Archives Services Division (NWCS-S), National Archives at College Park, 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD, 20740-6001. PHONE: 301-837-0561; FAX: 301-837-3621; EMAIL: stillpixorder@nara.gov.

Production Date(s): 1906, Part Of: Series: Artworks and Photographs Used In Overseas Exhibits, compiled 1942 - 1946.

Variant Control Number(s): NAIL Control Number: NWDNS-208-EX-237-1
Select List Identifier: AMCITY #65.

Index Terms:

* Subjects Represented in the Archival Material:
o Cities and towns
o United States (North and Central America) nation

Easter parade Fifth Avenue New York CityStill Picture Records Section, Special Media Archives Services Division (NWCS-S), National Archives at College Park, 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD, 20740-6001. PHONE: 301-837-0561; FAX: 301-837-3621; EMAIL: stillpixorder@nara.gov.
Access Restriction(s): Unrestricted, Use Restriction(s): Unrestricted

This IMAGE (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case 1906) are now in the public domain.

This file is a work of an employee of the Office for Emergency Management. Office of War Information, taken or made during the course of the person's official duties. As a work of the U.S. federal government, the file is in the public domain.

Generally speaking, works created by U.S. Government employees are not eligible for copyright protection in the United States. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office.

Saturday, April 23, 2011

Cornelius Vanderbilt

Mr. Vanderbilt was born near Stapleton, Staten Island, New York, May 27, 1794. He was descended from a Dutch immigrant, Jan Aertsen Van der Bilt, who came from Holland about 1650 and settled upon a farm near Brooklyn, New York. Jan's grandson, the great-grandfather of Cornelius, went over to Staten Island in 1715 and became the owner of a farm near New Dorp. The Vanderbilts continued to live on Staten Island till the time of Cornelius. The 'father of Cornelius was a farmer in moderate circumstances, who could have given his son a fair education, but the lad's interest lay in other ways. He learned to read and write, and that was about all, save that he had naturally a genius for arithmetic.

Mr. Vanderbilt was not slow to see that the railroads were destined to interfere seriously with the water traffic on the Hudson River and Long Island Sound. As early as 1844 he began very quietly to buy shares in the New York and New Haven Railroad.

In 1863, when he was sixty-nine years old, he entered upon a new career, one in which he was to achieve his greatest success, make the most radical changes, and accumulate an immense fortune. He became the greatest and most successful railroad manager the world had known. He differed from all railroad managers of that time in that he improved the roads he bought, and brought them to the highest degree of efficiency, while others made money by "wrecking" roads. His chief business maxim was "Do your business well, and don't tell anybody what you are going to do till you have done it."

Cornelius VanderbiltTitle: [Cornelius Vanderbilt, head-and-shoulders portrait, slightly to left, with side whiskers] Produced by Mathew B. Brady Studio, ca. 1823-1896. Date Created / Published: [between 1844 and 1860] Medium: 1 photograph : half plate daguerreotype, gold toned. Restored by Michel Vuijlsteke

Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication.

This IMAGE (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case between 1844 and 1860) are now in the public domain.

The Harlem Railroad had been so mismanaged that in 1863 its stock was selling at $10 a share. Mr. Vanderbilt bought a controlling interest in the road, and at the same time bought shares in the Hudson River road at $75 a share. This was the beginning of a battle royal between Vanderbilt and his business rivals. He obtained a charter for a system of street railways in New York to connect with his road, which sent its stock up to par; but prominent Wall Street operators and politicians entered into a combination against him, the politicians undertaking to secure the repeal of his charter, while the operators were to force down the price of the stock. This they succeeded in doing, the stock going lower and lower, but Vanderbilt kept buying it till he had the whole stock of the road, and the operators who had sold short had to settle with him on his own terms.

By this time he had secured a controlling interest in the Hudson River road, and he applied to the legislature for an act providing for a union of the Hudson River and Harlem roads under one management. Here he met the same kind of opposition as before from those who had not yet learned what kind of man they had to deal with. The stock went down, down below what it sold for before Mr. Vanderbilt took hold of it, and again he bought all that was offered. The contest went on until it was found that the men opposed to him had contracted to sell twenty-seven thousand more shares than had ever been issued.

In order to avert a general panic the " commodore " had to settle with the " shorts," but he did it at a price that brought him immense profits. The two roads were made one, with Mr. Vanderbilt as president of the new company. He surprised old railroad men with the minuteness of his knowledge of railway construction. Great improvements were made in every department. He insisted that only the very best appliances should be used, and that the employees should be well disciplined, faithful, and efficient. This was a revolution in railroad management.

Soon Mr. Vanderbilt began to buy stock in the Central road. Its managers decided to make war upon him and arranged to send as much of their freight and as many of their passengers as possible from Albany to New York by water. This did not prove to be a wise movement, for when the ice closed the river traffic Mr. Vanderbilt changed the terminus of his road from Albany to the other side of the river and refused to receive freight from the Central. The result was that the stock of the Central fell rapidly, the holders were anxious to sell, and Mr. Vanderbilt was soon able to unite the Central with his other roads.

TEXT CREDIT: Some successful Americans

Friday, April 22, 2011

William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare, was born at Stratford-on-Avon, Warwickshire, England, in April, 1564. The precise day of his birth is unknown, but since the baptismal register of the church in Stratford shows April 26 to have been the date of his baptism, it is probable that his birthday was only a few days earlier, it being customary in those old times to baptize infants as early after birth as was practicable. (Died April 23, 1616)

Of Shakespeare's ancestors very little is certainly known. The name itself indicates their military profession. It is supposed to be derived from the fact that ancient spearmen brandished the lance before hurling it on the enemy. Hence old Ben Jonson wrote: •

"Look how the father's face
Lives in his issue; even so, the race
Of Shakespeare's mind and manners brightly shines
In his well torn and true-filed lines;
In each of which he seems to shake a lance,
As brandished at the eyes of Ignorance."
Whether this conjecture concerning the founders of his family be well-founded or fanciful is uncertain; but of his father it is certain he was no soldier. The scant annals and traditions of Stratford afford such glimpses of his social position and fortune as to make it certain that he was a respectable citizen, who, during the boyhood of his illustrious son, possessed a moderate estate and was highly esteemed by his fellow townsmen, albeit his education had been so neglected that he could not write his own name.

His business was that of a glover, to which he seems to have joined the cultivation of his lands. In official circles he figured as constable, juror, alderman, bailiff, and magistrate. By marriage be was allied to a family socially superior to his own. His wife, Mary Arden, was the youngest of seven daughters, and her marriage portion and her subsequent inheritance at her father's death contributed considerably to the solid comfort of the home in which our poet spent his boyhood.

William ShakespeareThis was long thought to be the only portrait of William Shakespeare that had any claim to have been painted from life. The portrait is known as the 'Chandos portrait' after a previous owner, James Brydges, 1st Duke of Chandos. It was the first portrait to be acquired by the National Portrait Gallery in 1856. The portrait is oil on canvas, feigned oval, 21 3/4 in. x 17 1/4 in. (552 mm x 438 mm), Given by Francis Egerton, 1st Earl of Ellesmere, 1856, on display in Room 4 at the National Portrait Gallery, London, England, United Kingdom.

This IMAGE (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case c1600) are now in the public domain.

This file is also in the public domain in countries that figure copyright from the date of death of the artist (post mortem auctoris), and that most commonly runs for a period of 50 to 70 years from December 31st of that year.

William was the third of eight children born to John and Mary Shakespeare. Nothing is known of his child life. De Quincy says: "There can be little doubt that William Shakespeare, from his birth up to his tenth or perhaps his eleventh year, lived in careless plenty, and saw nothing in his father's house but that style of liberal housekeeping which has ever distinguished the upper yeomanry and the rural gentry of England." Possibly his father's expenditures were on a scale too liberal for his income, inasmuch as his affairs became inextricably embarrassed in 1575. His subsequent long-continued difficulties with his creditors, of which the sensitive and observant William must have been painfully aware, probably furnished more or less of the materials out of which, in after years, the poet drew inspiration when writing his Timon of Athens. One can scarcely doubt that his father's harsh creditors were in his mind when he composed these lines:

"His familiars to his buried fortunes Slink all away; left their false vows with him,

Like empty purses picked: and his poor self, A dedicated beggar to the air,

"With his disease of all-shunned poverty, "Walked, like contempt, alone."

There was a free grammar school in Stratford. Shakespeare's parents, notwithstanding their own illiteracy, must have felt desirous of giving their hopeful boy an advantage the lack of which in their own lives must have been more or less a source of mortification, at least on occasions. Hence, in the absence of positive proof, it is inferred that they sent him to this school. This inference is supported by the evidence furnished in his works that his early education had not been wholly neglected, that he had acquired at least a smattering of the classics. Nevertheless, there is no positive proof that he was one of its pupils; nor, if he was, how long he enjoyed its instruction.

TEXT CREDIT: Bibliographic information. Title: William Shakespeare, Issue 23 of Home college series. Author: Daniel Wise, Publisher: Phillips & Hunt, 1884. Original from: Harvard University. Digitized: Feb 8, 2006. Length: 16 pages. Subjects: Drama / Shakespeare / Literary Criticism / Shakespeare

Thursday, April 21, 2011

The Battle of San Jacinto

From A Brief History of Texas

On the morning of the 19th of April, the Texan army crossed over and marched down the right bank of the Buffalo Bayou to within half a mile of its junction with the San Jacinto River. Here they formed in line of battle on the edge of a grove of trees, their rear protected by the timber, while before them was the open prairie.

A few days before this, the army of the young Republic had received two pieces of artillery as a gift from some of the citizens of Cincinnati, Ohio. These were named the " Twin Sisters," and were placed in position. On the morning of the 20th of April, and soon after General Houston had dispersed his forces, Santa Anna came marching up in battle array. A volley from the "Twin Sisters" brought him to a sudden halt, and falling back to a clump of trees a quarter of a mile distant, he formed in line of battle. In return for the feint of the evening, Colonel Sherman, at the head of his mounted men, made a gallant charge upon the Mexican army, which, although it did not accomplish any decisive result, seemed to inspire our men with fresh enthusiasm.

The 21st of April dawned bright and beautiful. It was felt by those who were to participate in its stirring scenes, to be the day upon which the conflict for Texas was to be decided.

On this side was arrayed the whole available army of Texas, embracing 750* men. On that, were the best troops of Mexico, to the number of 1,800, and commanded by an able and wily general. The men of Texas were aware that every thing for them depended upon the issue of the fight, and every heart was beating quick and every nerve well strung.

The men of Mexico were flushed with pride at recent successes, and felt secure of the result.

Early in the morning General Houston sent Deaf Smith, the celebrated Texas spy, with two or three men, to destroy Vince's bridge across the bayou over which the Mexican army had passed, thus cutting off their only available avenue of escape. The daring exploit was executed almost in the presence of the foe. It was now decided to be the moment to attack Santa Anna in his intrenchments. With the stillness of death the patriot army moved, in three divisions, to the charge. No music heralded the advance. No sound but the quiet tread of determined men broke the stillness of that spring morning. When within two hundred yards they received the volley of the enemy's advanced column without quailing, and then increased their pace to a " double quick."

The Battle of San JacintoThis IMAGE (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case 1903) are now in the public domain.

This file is also in the public domain in countries that figure copyright from the date of death of the artist (post mortem auctoris), in this case Henry Arthur McArdle (1836-1908), and that most commonly runs for a period of 50 to 70 years from December 31st of that year.

When within seventy yards the word "fire" was given, and six hundred Texas rifles belched forth their deadly contents. Then the shout, "Alamo" and "Goliad," rang along the entire line, and they rushed forward to a hand to hand encounter. But Mexican valor had already given way before the impetuosity of that charge, and in a few minutes more the boastful legions of the " Napoleon of the West" were in full retreat. The rout soon became general. Finding the bridge destroyed, the Mexicans plunged into the bayou, where many were drowned or slain by their pursuers. Seven hundred dead Mexicans upon that day atoned for the butchery at the Alamo and Goliad; and seven hundred and thirty prisoners were in the hands of the victorious army.

Santa Anna in vain tried to escape. He was discovered, on the morning of the 22d, hiding in the long grass with a blanket thrown over his head, and was taken to the quarters of General Houston.

At the time Santa Anna was brought before him, Houston, who had been severely wounded in the battle, was lying on a mattrass under a tree which constituted his headquarters. The President of Mexico, bowing low before him, said, "I am General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, a prisoner of war at your disposal." General Houston requested him to sit down, which he did, at the same time asking for opium. A piece of this drug was brought him, which he eagerly swallowed. He then at once proposed to purchase his freedom, but was answered, "that was a matter to be negotiated with the government of Texas." He however persisted saying to Houston, "You can afford to be generous, you have conquered the Napoleon of the West."

General Houston asked him "how he could expect mercy after showing none at the Alamo?"

He replied, that "by the rules of war, when a fort refused to surrender, and was taken by assault, the prisoners were doomed to death." General Houston answered him that " such a rule was a disgrace to the civilization of the nineteenth century." He was then asked "by what rule he justified the massacre of Goliad?" He replied that "he had orders from his government to execute all that were taken with arms in their hands."

General Houston told him that "he was the government—a Dictator had no superior, and that he must at once write an. order for all his troops to abandon Texas and return home." This he did, and the dispatch was sent by a trusty messenger to his subordinates.

How to dispose of Santa Anna was a troublesome question. Among the soldiers the feeling existed that his life only could atone for the cruelties perpetrated by his order. But prudence as well as humanity dictated another course, and his life was spared. The following agreement was entered into between him and the President of Texas:

First. That he would never again take up arms against Texas.

Second. That he should order all Mexican troops in Texas to return home.

Third. That he should cause to be restored all captured property.

In consideration of the fulfillment of these conditions he was to be set free. When the time came for his release, the storm of popular indignation was so great, that President Burnet thought best to order his longer detention as a prisoner of war.

Santa Anna was liberated by President Houston, in January, 1837, and sent to Washington, D. C., whence he returned to Mexico.

TEXT CREDIT: A Texas scrap-book: made up of the history, biography, and miscellany of Texas and its people

Wednesday, April 20, 2011

Cinderella and the glass slippers

The third night the sisters went again to the ball. Then Cinderella said again to the hazel tree:

"Rustle and shake, Dear little tree!
For the king's ball, Once more dress me."

Down came a dress more beautiful than either of the others. With it was a pair of little glass slippers, the prettiest ever seen.

Cinderella, more lovely than ever, was the queen of the ball. The prince danced with her only, and he gave no one else a chance even to speak to her. "I will follow her tonight and see where she lives," he thought.

But she went like the wind, and was soon lost to sight. As she ran, however, she dropped one of her little glass slippers. The prince picked it up, and took it home.

The next morning he sent for a faithful servant.

"Take this slipper," he said, "and find the maiden to whom it belongs. She and she only shall be my bride."

The servant went from house to house with the slipper, but he found no one who could wear it. At last he came to Cinderella's home.

"Whoever can wear this slipper shall be the prince's bride," he said. The stepsisters were glad to hear this, for both had small feet. First, the older went into her mother's room and tried to put on the slipper. She could have worn it if her great toe had not been too large. Her mother handed her a knife, and said, "Cut off your toe, my daughter. When you are the prince's bride, you will not need to walk."

Cinderella and the glass slippers

So the girl cut off her toe, and squeezed her foot into the slipper.

"I am ready now to go to the prince," she said to the servant.

But when they came to the hazel tree, the servant heard the dove singing: —

"At your side, at your side, There's blood in the shoe;
This is the wrong bride, At home is the true."

He looked down, and saw that the slipper was indeed full of blood. So he led the maiden back, and handed the slipper to the sister to try. She went into her mother's room to put it on, but she could not get it over her heel.

"Cut a piece off your heel," said her mother. "When you are the prince's bride, you will not need to walk."

So she cut a piece off her heel, and

squeezed her foot into the slipper. Then she went out to meet the prince. But as they passed the hazel tree, the servant heard the dove sing: —

"At your side, at your side, There's blood in the shoe;
This is the wrong bride, At home is the true."

He looked down, and saw blood trickling from the slipper. So he went back to the house, and the king's son went with him.

"Have you no other daughter?" said the prince.

"None," said the father, "except little Cinderella, the daughter of my first wife. She is so smutty that I am ashamed for you to see her."

But the prince would have his way. Cinderella was called, and she came in her poor rags. She bowed low to the prince as she took the slipper from his hand. Then she sat down on a stool. She pulled off her wooden shoe, and put on the slipper with all ease. Then the prince looked full in her face. It was the face of the beautiful maiden with whom he had danced.

"Ah, this is the right bride," he cried.

Then he took Cinderella on his horse, and rode away. As they passed the hazel tree, the little dove sang: —

"At your side, at your side, No blood's in the shoe;
This is the right bride; Coo, coo"

--------------------------------------------------

Title: Grimm's Fairy Tales, Graded supplementary reading series, Volume 2374 of Harvard reading textbooks preservation microfilm project. Illustration by Robert Anning Bell l ( April 14, 1863 – 1933) English artist and designer.

Authors: Jacob Grimm, Wilhelm Grimm. Editor: Edna Henry Lee Turpin. Publisher: Maynard, Merrill, 1903. Original from: Harvard University. Digitized: Mar 23, 2007. Length: 207 pages. Subjects: Fairy tales Readers (Elementary)

This IMAGE (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case 1903) are now in the public domain.

This file is also in the public domain in countries that figure copyright from the date of death of the artist (post mortem auctoris), in this case Robert Anning Bell ( April 14, 1863 – 1933), and that most commonly runs for a period of 50 to 70 years from December 31st of that year.

TEXT CREDIT: Grimm's Fairy Tales

Tuesday, April 19, 2011

San Francisco earthquake city hall 1906

The California earthquake of April 18, 1906 ranks as one of the most significant earthquakes of all time, firefighters finally halt the spread of flames two days April 20. Today, its importance comes more from the wealth of scientific knowledge derived from it than from its sheer size. Rupturing the northernmost 296 miles (477 kilometers) of the San Andreas fault from northwest of San Juan Bautista to the triple junction at Cape Mendocino, the earthquake confounded contemporary geologists with its large, horizontal displacements and great rupture length. Indeed, the significance of the fault and recognition of its large cumulative offset would not be fully appreciated until the advent of plate tectonics more than half a century later. Analysis of the 1906 displacements and strain in the surrounding crust led Reid (1910) to formulate his elastic-rebound theory of the earthquake source, which remains today the principal model of the earthquake cycle.

Title: City Hall after the earthquake, showing the shattered foundations, San Francisco, Cal. Creator(s): Griffith, Geo. W., Date Created/Published: Philadelphia : Geo. W. Griffith, c1906. Medium: 1 photographic print on stereo card : stereograph.

Summary: Stereograph showing ruins of City Hall following the earthquake and fire in San Francisco, 1906, with photographer using camera on tripod in foreground. Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-ppmsca-09828 (digital file from original stereograph)

Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication.

Call Number: LOT 11523-4 [item] [P&P] Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

Notes:
* H81824 U.S. Copyright Office.
* No. 39.
* Sold only by Griffith & Griffith.
* Title from item.
* Exhibited: Documenting Disaster: Photographs of the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Fire, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, California, 2006.

San Francisco earthquake city hall 1906Subjects:
* San Francisco Earthquake and Fire, Calif., 1906.
* Disasters--California--San Francisco--1900-1910.
* City & town halls--California--San Francisco--1900-1910.
* Ruins--California--San Francisco--1900-1910.
* Photography--California--San Francisco--1900-1910.

Format:
* Photographic prints--1900-1910.
* Stereographs--1900-1910.

Collections:
* Stereograph Cards

TEXT RESOURCE: Welcome to the USGS - U.S. Geological Survey

Monday, April 18, 2011

Ceremony of eating the Passover

Title: Ceremony of eating the Passover, Yemenite family, April 3, 1939. The meal covered while drinking the ceremonial wine. Creator(s): Matson Photo Service, photographer. Date Created/Published: 1939 April 3.

Medium: 1 negative : nitrate ; 4 x 5 in. Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-matpc-18363 (digital file from original photo)

Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication.

Call Number: LC-M33- 9401 [P&P] Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

Notes:
* Title and date from: photographer's logbook: Matson Registers, v. 1, [1934-1939].
* Gift; Episcopal Home; 1978.

Format:
* Nitrate negatives.

Collections:
* Matson (G. Eric and Edith) Photograph Collection

Part of: G. Eric and Edith Matson Photograph Collection

Ceremony of eating the Passover

Ceremony of eating the Passover

Saturday, April 16, 2011

Magnolia x soulangeana

MAGNOLIA (after Pierre Magnol, professor of medicine and director of the botanic garden at Montpellier. 1638-1715). Magnoliacea. Highly ornamental anil popular deciduous or evergreen trees or shrubs, with alternate large, entire leaves and large white, pink or purple, rarely yellowish flowers, often fragrant; the cone-shaped fruits are often pink or scarlet and very decorative. Mont of tlie deciduous species are fairly hardy, at least in sheltered positions, as far north as northern N. Y. and Mass., and acvminala, Koltus and ttellata even farther north, while JU. Vampbelli is the most tender.

Of the evergreen species, M. grandiflora, one of the most beautiful native trees, is precariously hardy north to Philadelphia. The Asiatic deciduous species are among the most showy and striking of the early-flowering trees and shrubs; the earliest is the shrubby M. stellata, blooming in mild climates in March, and after this Ytilun comes in bloom, closely followed by M. Soulangtana and after this M.obovnla. The handsomest of the deciduous species is probably M. hypoltuca, with the very large leaves silvery white lielow and with showy, sweet-scented flowers; also the American M. macrophyll'i and tripelala are conspicuous by their very large foliage. The Magnolias are usually planted as single specimens on the lawn, and there are, perhaps, no plants more striking against a background of dark green conifers. Some species, as Al.grandiflora in the South and acuminate farther north, are fine avenue trees.

Magnolia x soulangeana

Magnolia x soulangeana

Magnolia x soulangeana
The Magnolias thrive best in somewhat rich, moderately moist and porous soil, preferring sandy or peaty loam, but some kinds which usually grow naturally on the borders of swamps, as glauca, thrive as well in moist and swampy situations. Transplanting is difficult and is most successfully performed just when the new growth is starting. Prop, by seeds sown immediately or stratified, and by layers of last year's growth put down in spring and tongued or notched.

Layers are usually severed and transplanted the following spring, but as many of them die after transplanting, it Is a safer way to take them off early in July, when the new growth has ripened, plant them in pots and keep in a close frame until they are established. Varieties and rarer kinds are often veneer- or side-grafted in early spring or summer on potted stock in the greenhouse or frame; as a stock tripetala is perhaps the best, on account of better fibrous roots, which render transplanting safer, but M. acuminata is also a good stock Sometimes increased by greenwood cuttings taken with a heel and handled under glass.

About 20 species in N. America, south to Mexico, Himalayas and E. Asia. Trees and shrubs, with rather stout branches marked with conspicuous leaf-scars; stipules usually adnate to the petiole and enclosing the young successive leaf: fls. terminal, solitary, the buds inclosed in a stipular spathe; sepals 3, often petaloid; petals 6-15; stamens and carpels numerous, the latter connate into a spindle, developing into a cone-like somewhat fleshy or leathery fr., with dehiscent, 1-2-seeded carpels; the large, usually scarlet seeds often suspended for a time from the fr. by thin threads. The wood is close-grained, usually light and satiny, but not durable; that of M. hi/polt«ca is much used in Japan for lacquered ware; the bark and fr. of some species have been used medicinally as a tonic and stimulant.

Image License: I, (sookietex) the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. This applies worldwide. In case this is not legally possible, I grant any entity the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law.

If These image is subject to copyright in your jurisdiction, i (sookietex) the copyright holder have irrevocably released all rights to it, allowing it to be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, used, modified, built upon, or otherwise exploited in any way by anyone for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial, with or without attribution of the author, as if in the public domain.

Magnolia soulangeana, Saucer Magnolia. This hybrid between a tree and a shrub, both natives of Japan, is represented by many intermediate forms between those of the parents, a number of which are perfectly hardy here. It is probably the best magnolia for general planting. It bears abundant blossoms every year, which are large and attractive, ranging in color from white to purple. Two varieties of this hybrid which have done well are Lenne Magnolia (M. soulangeana lennei) with large purple flowers, and the Large Saucer Magnolia (M. soulangeana alba superfcn), both interesting novelties.

Friday, April 15, 2011

Lysergic acid diethylamide LSD LSD-25

LSD was first synthesized November 16, 1938 by Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann at the Sandoz Laboratories in Basel, Switzerland as part of a research program for medically useful ergot, a fungus that grows on rye and other grains, alkaloid derivatives. LSD's psychedelic properties were discovered 5 years later when Hofmann accidentally ingested the chemical. The first intentional ingestion of LSD occurred on April 19, 1943, when Hofmann ingested 250 µg of LSD. He said, this would be a threshold dose based on the dosages of other ergot alkaloids. Hofmann found the effects to be much stronger than anticipated. Sandoz Laboratories introduced LSD as a psychiatric drug in 1947.

Description: LSD-2D-skeletal-formula-and-3D-models.png

Skeletal formula and ball-and-stick and space-filling models of the lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) molecule, C20H25N3O.

Colour code:

* Carbon, C: grey-black
* Hydrogen, H: white
* Nitrogen, N: blue
* Oxygen, O: red

Lysergic acid diethylamide LSD LSD-25Structure based on that found in the related salt LSD o-iodobenzoate monohydrate, determined by X-ray crystallography in Molecular Pharmacology (1973) 9, 23-32.

Model manipulated in CrystalMaker 8.3.

The structure of the [LSD+H]+ cation from the above crystal structure was opened in Spartan Student 4.1, one hydrogen atom on the R3NH+ group was deleted, yielding the neutral LSD molecule. Its structure was then refined with the PM3 semi-empirical method.

Image generated in Accelrys DS Visualizer. Date: 13 March 2011(2011-03-13) Author: Ben Mills.

This work has been released into the public domain by its author, Benjah-bmm27. This applies worldwide. In some countries this may not be legally possible; if so: Benjah-bmm27 grants anyone the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law.

TEXT RESOURCE: Lysergic acid diethylamide

Thursday, April 14, 2011

Jackie Robinson Kansas City Monarchs Clip Art

Jackie Robinson Kansas City Monarchs Clip Art. Public Domain Clip Art Stock Photos and Images.

Jack Roosevelt "Jackie" Robinson (January 31, 1919 – October 24, 1972) becomes the first black Major League Baseball (MLB) player of the modern era. On April 15, 1947 he plays his first game with the Brooklyn Dodgers.

More about this image and Story at Public Domain Clip Art - http://publicdomainclip-art.blogspot.com/2011/04/jackie-robinson-in-kansas-city-monarchs.html

Item Title: [Jackie Robinson in Kansas City Monarchs uniform]. Created / Published: 1945. Notes: Forms part of: Visual Materials from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Records. Published in: Kansas City Call newspaper.

Subjects: Robinson, Jackie,--1919-1972. Kansas City Monarchs (Baseball team)--1940-1950--People. Portrait photographs--1940-1950. Photographic prints--1940-1950.

Medium: 1 photographic print. Call Number: LOT 13074, no. 454 REPRODUCTION NUMBER: LC-USZ62-119886 DLC (b&w film copy neg.)

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. Digital ID: (original) ppmsc 00039 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/ppmsc.00039. (b and w film copy neg.) cph 3c19886 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3c19886

Jackie Robinson Kansas City Monarchs Clip Art

Jackie Robinson Kansas City Monarchs Clip Art

The Library of Congress is unaware of any U.S. copyright protection (see Title 17, U.S.C.) or any other restrictions on the materials reproduced in the By Popular Demand: Jackie Robinson and Other Baseball Highlights 1860s-1960s (Jackie Robinson Kansas City Monarchs Clip Art) (except where indicated in the information that accompanies certain items), there may be content protected by copyright or neighboring-rights laws of other nations.

This work is in the public domain because it was published in the United States between 1923 and 1977 inclusive, without a copyright notice. Unless the author has been dead for several years, it is not in the public domain in countries that do not apply the rule of the shorter term for US works. This includes Canada, China (not Hong Kong, Macao, or Taiwan Area), Germany, Mexico, Switzerland, and other countries with individual treatie.

Wednesday, April 13, 2011

Dust Bowl Black Sunday (storm) April 14, 1935.

The "Black Sunday" Dust Storm of 14 April 1935 Research Notes Quotes

"...A huge cloud of black top soil swooped down upon Laverne in the manner of a heavy cloud flattening out upon the earth and spread absolute darkness the like of which has never been experienced by most Harper county folk." The Leader Tribune, Laverne, 18 April 1935.

"...a great black bank rolled in out of the northeast, and in a twinkling when it struck Liberal, plunged everything into inky blackness, worse than that on any midnight, when there is at least some starlight and outlines of objects can be seen. When the storm struck it was impossible to see one's hand before his face even two inches away. And it was several minutes before any trace of daylight whatsoever returned." Liberal News, 15 April 1935.

"The billowing black cloud struck Amarillo at 7:20 o'clock and visibility was zero for 12 minutes." Amarillo Daily News, 15 April 1935 (from the Associated Press).

"Mr. Williamson... had mounted a horse and was headed toward the fire when he met this great dust cloud, and was enveloped in darkness. The electrical current was so strong that it snapped from ear to ear on his bronco, and the cow chips ignited by the fire would roll hundreds of yards kindling the grass as they rolled and burned." Panhandle Herald, Guymon, 15 April 1935.

"Now, as we recall that day, we are glad that we were eye-witnesses to perhaps the most awe-inspiring and majestic upheaval of Nature that ever occurred in this section of the United States." Pauline Winkler Grey, The Black Sunday of April 14, 1935. Kansas Historical Society.

Dust Bowl Black Sunday (storm) April 14, 1935A dust storm approaching Spearman. In: "Monthly Weather Review," Volume 63, April 1935, p. 148.

Image ID: wea01422, NOAA's National Weather Service (NWS) Collection, Location: Texas, Spearman. Photo Date: 1935 April 14

The information on government servers are in the public domain, unless specifically annotated otherwise, and may be used freely by the public so long as you do not 1) claim it is your own (e.g. by claiming copyright for NWS information -- see below),

2) use it in a manner that implies an endorsement or affiliation with NOAA/NWS, or 3) modify it in content and then present it as official government material.

Generally speaking, works created by U.S. Government employees are not eligible for copyright protection in the United States. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office.

Category: Monsters / Drought / Dust Bowl /

TEXT CREDIT: National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office Norman, OK

Tuesday, April 12, 2011

Colonel Yuri A. Gagarin The Columbus of The Cosmos

Colonel Yuri A. Gagarin was born on a collective farm in a region west of Moscow, Russia on March 9, 1934. His father was a carpenter. Yuri attended the local school for six years and continued his education at vocational and technical schools.

Colonel Gagarin joined the Russian Air Force in 1955 and graduated with honors from the Soviet Air Force Academy in 1957. Soon afterward, he became a military fighter pilot. By 1959, he had been selected for cosmonaut training as part of the first group of USSR cosmonauts.

Yuri Gagarin flew only one space mission. On April 12, 1961 he became the first human to orbit Earth. Gagarin's spacecraft, Vostok 1, circled Earth at a speed of 27,400 kilometers per hour. The flight lasted 108 minutes. At the highest point, Gagarin was about 327 kilometers above Earth.

Once in orbit, Gagarin had no control over his spacecraft. Vostok's reentry was controlled by a computer program sending radio commands to the space capsule. Although the controls were locked, a key had been placed in a sealed envelope in case an emergency situation made it necessary for Gagarin to take control. As was planned, Cosmonaut Gagarin ejected after reentry into Earth's atmosphere and landed by parachute.

Colonel Yuri Gagarin died on March 27, 1968 when the MiG-15 he was piloting crashed near Moscow. At the time of his death, Yuri Gagarin was in training for a second space mission.

Yuri A. GagarinYuri saying hello to the press during a visit to Malmö, Sweden 1964.

This Swedish photograph is free to use under one of the following cases:

* For photographic works (fotografiska verk), the image is public domain:

a) if the photographer died before January 1, 1944, or
b) if the photographer is not known, and cannot be traced, and the image was created before January 1, 1944.

* For photographic pictures (fotografiska bilder), such as images by the press, the image is public domain if created before January 1, 1969.

TEXT CREDIT: StarChild: A Learning Center for Young Astronomers

Monday, April 11, 2011

The bombardment of Fort Sumter

The bombardment of Fort Sumter. April 12, 1861 – Confederate forces began firing at Fort Sumter in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina, starting the American Civil War.

Location: Charleston County, Campaign: Operations in Charleston Harbor (April 1861) Date(s): April 12-14, 1861. Principal Commanders: Maj. Robert Anderson [US]; Brig. Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard [CS] Forces Engaged: Regiments: 580 total (US 80; CS est. 500) Estimated Casualties: None

Description: On April 10, 1861, Brig. Gen. Beauregard, in command of the provisional Confederate forces at Charleston, South Carolina, demanded the surrender of the Union garrison of Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. Garrison commander Anderson refused. On April 12, Confederate batteries opened fire on the fort, which was unable to reply effectively.

At 2:30 pm, April 13, Major Anderson surrendered Fort Sumter, evacuating the garrison on the following day. The bombardment of Fort Sumter was the opening engagement of the American Civil War. Although there were no casualties during the bombardment, one Union artillerist was killed and three wounded (one mortally) when a cannon exploded prematurely while firing a salute during the evacuation on April 14.

"The bombardment of Fort Sumter," engraving by unknown artist, 1863. Courtesy of the United States National Park Service, Department of the Interior.

Bombardment of Fort Sumter


Bombardment of Fort Sumter

This website and the information it contains are provided as a public service by the National Park Service (NPS), U.S. Department of the Interior.

Information created or owned by the NPS and presented on this website, unless otherwise indicated, is considered in the public domain. It may be distributed or copied as permitted by applicable law.

This Image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1923 are copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case 1863) are now in the public domain.

Saturday, April 09, 2011

Emiliano Zapata Salazar

Emiliano Zapata Salazar (August 8, 1879 – April 10, 1919)

Title: Emelio Zapata. Creator(s): Bain News Service, publisher. Date Created/Published: [between ca. 1910 and ca. 1915] Medium: 1 negative : glass ; 5 x 7 in. or smaller. Summary: Photo shows Emiliano Zapata Salazar (1879-1919), leader of the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920). (Source: Flickr Commons project, 2010) Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-ggbain-14906 (digital file from original negative)

Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication. There are no known restrictions on the photographs in the George Grantham Bain Collection. Access: Permitted; subject to P&P policy on serving originals.

Reproduction (photocopying, hand-held camera copying, photoduplication and other forms of copying allowed by "fair use"): Permitted; subject to P&P policy on copying. Publication and other forms of distribution: No known restrictions.

Credit Line: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, [reproduction number, e.g., LC-B2-1234]

Call Number: LC-B2- 2915-12 [P&P] Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print

Emiliano Zapata SalazarNotes:
* Title from data provided by the Bain News Service on the negative.
* Forms part of: George Grantham Bain Collection (Library of Congress).
* General information about the Bain Collection is available at http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.ggbain
* Additional information about this photograph might be available through the Flickr Commons project at http://www.flickr.com/photos/library_of_congress/4586901846

Format:
* Glass negatives.

Collections:
* Bain Collection

The George Grantham Bain Collection represents the photographic files of one of America's earliest news picture agencies. The collection richly documents sports events, theater, celebrities, crime, strikes, disasters, political activities including the woman suffrage campaign, conventions and public celebrations. The photographs Bain produced and gathered for distribution through his news service were worldwide in their coverage, but there was a special emphasis on life in New York City. The bulk of the collection dates from the 1900s to the mid-1920s, but scattered images can be found as early as the 1860s and as late as the 1930s.

Friday, April 08, 2011

Route 66 Sign

Title: Route 66 Sign. Creator(s): Highsmith, Carol M., 1946-, photographer. Date Created/Published: 2006 October 11. Medium: 1 photograph : digital, TIFF file, color. Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-highsm-04070 (original digital file)

Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication.

Call Number: LC-DIG-highsm- 04070 (ONLINE) [P&P] Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print.

Notes:
* Title, date, and subjects provided by the photographer.
* Credit line: Carol M. Highsmith's America, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.
* Gift and purchase; Carol M. Highsmith; 2009; (DLC/PP-2010:031).
* Forms part of: Carol M. Highsmith's America Project in the Carol M. Highsmith Archive.

Subjects:
* United States
* Route 66.
* America.

Format:
* Digital photographs--Color--2000-2010.

Collections:
* Highsmith (Carol M.) Archive

Part of: Highsmith, Carol M., 1946- Carol M. Highsmith Archive.

Route 66 SignAbout the Carol M. Highsmith Archive

The online presentation of the Carol M. Highsmith Archive features photographs of landmark buildings and architectural renovation projects in Washington, D.C., and throughout the United States. The first 23 groups of photographs contain more than 2,500 images and date from 1980 to 2005, with many views in color as well as black-and-white. Extensive coverage of the Library of Congress Jefferson Building was added in 2007. The archive is expected to grow to more than 100,000 photographs covering all of the United States.

Highsmith, a distinguished and richly-published American photographer, has donated her work to the Library of Congress since 1992. Starting in 2002, Highsmith provided scans or photographs she shot digitally with new donations to allow rapid online access throughout the world. Her generosity in dedicating the rights to the American people for copyright free access also makes this Archive a very special visual resource.

Thursday, April 07, 2011

Siberian Squill Scilla sibirica.

Scilla is the old Greek name meaning, / injure; referring, it is
supposed, to the jwisonous bulbs.

Scillas form a group of early-flowering bulbous plants. One of the best is Scilla sibirica, native to Russia, Siberia, and Asia Minor. March.

Leaves.—Two to four, narrow, ascending, four to six inches long. Flowers.—Deep-blue in the type, borne on one to three-flowered scapes, horizontal or drooping.

Perianth.—Of six distinct segments. Stamens.—Six with flattened filaments and oblong anthers.

Ovary.—Three-lobed; style slender, stigma minute.

Capsule.—Triangular, three-valved; seeds black.

Of this group of bright little flowers, Scilla sibirica has become a garden favorite. Its blue stars come early, usually in March, and they are wholly, delightfully, persistently blue. The perianth is about an inch across, pure blue, with a darker line in the. middle of each petal; the stamens are blue; the style and stigma are blue; only the green ovary lies in the centre. It should be planted in mass, fcr only by numbers can the best effects be produced.

Siberian Squill Scilla sibiricaSiberian Squill Scilla sibirica

A number of species are in cultivation; among the best are bifblui, which can be had in several colors; amd-na, very hardy and robust; virna, a native of sea-shores, and autumnalis, blooming in September.

Image License: I, (sookietex) the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. This applies worldwide. In case this is not legally possible, I grant any entity the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law.

If These image is subject to copyright in your jurisdiction, i (sookietex) the copyright holder have irrevocably released all rights to it, allowing it to be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, used, modified, built upon, or otherwise exploited in any way by anyone for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial, with or without attribution of the author, as if in the public domain.

TEXT CREDIT: Our garden flowers: a popular study of their native lands, their life histories,and their structural affiliations

Wednesday, April 06, 2011

Forsythia F. veridissima

The forsythias, coming from China and Japan, belong to the order Oleacece, and have long been in cultivation in English gardens, the name of the genus having been applied in the last century, in honor of William Forsyth, the king's gardener at Kensington for many years. There are but few species or varieties known to us in cultivation, but all that are thus employed prove to be charming plants, and of especial worth because of their season of flowering and the situations which they may be made to occupy to advantage. The flowers are solitary, bright yellow, and very numerous, and so distributed along the branches as to often cover the entire bush.

These are produced on the wood of the previous year's growth, and it sometimes occurs that people who do not appreciate this fact prune their plants in winter, thus removing nearly all the flowering wood, and then complain that their forsythias do not meet their anticipations. These plants need to be severely cut back each year, but it should be done at the close of their flowering season, which is before the foliage fully puts out rather than after. Nearly all the wood of the year preceding should be cut away, and the knife may be used without fear of doing harm, as new branches will quickly take the places of those removed.

All the forsythias are rapid growers, and the long, slender branches, newly formed, carry foliage sufficiently attractive to justify the highest expectations in seeking a desirable plant of its proportions. When occasion requires, the shrub may be trained on a wall or fence and made to cover a considerable space. It is equally fitted to be formed into a round, compact head, as is often done in the best gardens.

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If These image is subject to copyright in your jurisdiction, i (sookietex) the copyright holder have irrevocably released all rights to it, allowing it to be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, used, modified, built upon, or otherwise exploited in any way by anyone for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial, with or without attribution of the author, as if in the public domain.

F. veridissima takes its specific name from the bright green leaves which it carries, rather than from the color of its flowers, which are golden-yellow and among the first to appear in spring. This is the plant longest and best known in our gardens, and the species which drew so many praises from flower-lovers a hundred years ago and which were by no means unmerited. It is of erect, spreading habit, and entirely hardy.

F. suspensa differs but little from the other form, except that its long, slender branches are slightly pendant at their terminals, and so are by many esteemed more graceful. The blossoms may not be quite so numerous, but the plant as a whole is fully as good, though not especially to be preferred except for training on walls or trellises where it will have a wider spread. A correspondent in Medians Monthly gave an account, some time since, of an instance where a plant was kept to a single stem for ten feet, and then allowed to spread on the trellis, where it did good service by way of affording shade to a doorway which was too sunny an exposure. This illustrates its capabilities in that direction.

The plant is sometimes catalogued under the names F. fortunei and F. sieboldi, but these are to be regarded merely as synonyms.

TEXT CREDIT: Ornamental shrubs for garden, lawn, and park planting

Tuesday, April 05, 2011

Sauk Chief Makataimeshekiakiah, or Black Hawk

Black Hawk War begins April 6, 1832

In April of 1832, the Winnebagoes, Saes, and Foxes, Indian tribes inhabiting the upper Mississippi, commenced hostilities under their celebrated chief, Black Hawk, re-entering the lands which had been sold to the United States, and which were now occupied by the citizens of Illinois.

The so-called sale of Indian lands was frequently anything but with the free-will of the red man, and, as in this very instance, the Sao Indians were extremely unwilling to vacate their lands; but American generals, of the same character as the president, unscrupulous and resolute, not troubled either with too much conscience or too much sensibility, were ever at hand ready to pledge themselves "within fifteen days to remove the Indians, dead or alive, over to the west side of the Mississippi."

The conduct of Black Hawk on this occasion is worthy to be related. Gaines, the American general, rose in the council of the chiefs, and said that the president was displeased with the refusal of the Saes to go to the west of the great river. Black Hawk replied that the Saes, of which he was the chief, had never sold their lands, and were determined to hold them.

Sauk Chief Makataimeshekiakiah, or Black HawkDescription: Sauk Chief Makataimeshekiakiah, or Black Hawk. Date: 1837. Source: McKenney, Thomas Loraine and James Hall. History of the Indian Tribes of North America, with Biographical Sketches and Anecdotes, of the Principal Chiefs. Philadelphia: J. T. Bowen, 1848-1850. Author: Charles Bird King (1785–1862)

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"Who is this Black Hawk? Is he a chief?" inquired the general. "What right has he in the council?"

Black Hawk rose, and gathering his blanket round him, walked out of the assembly. The next morning he was again in the council, and rising slowly, said, addressing the American general: "My father, you inquired yesterday, 'Who is this Black Hawk? Why does he sit among the chiefs?' I will tell you who I am. 1 am a Sac; my father was a Sac; I am a warrior, and so was my father. Ask those young men who have followed me to battle, and they will tell you who Black Hawk is; provoke our people to war, and you will learn who Black Hawk is."

TEXT CREDIT: A popular history of the United States of America By Mary Howitt

Monday, April 04, 2011

Southwest Airlines Boeing 737

Weapons Division to test commercial jet for P-3C replacement program.

Engineers at the NAWCWD Weapons Survivability Laboratory (WSL) added a new component to the P-8A Poseidon Live-Fire Test and Evaluation (LFTE) Program that could save the Naval Air Systems Command hundreds of thousands of dollars.

Paul Gorish, vulnerability engineer at WSL, found an intact commercial 737 aircraft that he incorporated into the P-8A LFTE Program, which the WSL is conducting for NAVAIR's Maritime Patrol and Reconnaissance Program (PMA-290).

"Being able to use this 737 airframe for our LFT&E program best enables the P-8 program to evaluate the survivability of the airframe in the most cost effective and efficient manner possible," said Capt. Leon Bacon, P-8A Poseidon team lead in PMA-290.

P-8A Poseidon is the replacement aircraft for the aging P-3C Orion. Its mission is anti-submarine warfare, anti-surface warfare, and intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance. Boeing will build the Poseidon on a commercial 737 frame.





This retired Southwest Airlines 737 lands at Armitage Field in December to become part of the live-fire test and evaluation program for NAVAIR's P-8A Poseidon, the Navy's replacement for the P-3C Orion. Photo by Gary Brown.

This former commercial jet makes its way to the NAWCWD Weapons Survivability Laboratory at China Lake in December where it will go through live-fire test and evaluation as part of the P-8A Poseidon Program. Photo by Ray Hocker.

This former commercial 737 left the friendly skies and reported for ground duty in December with the U.S. government at NAWCWD China Lake. Photo by Ray Hocker.

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After arriving at China Lake, the engines, auxiliary power unit, avionics and windshield were the only things removed from this 737, which was recently retired from the Southwest Airlines fleet.

"It was so intact that the in-flight magazines were still in the backs of the seats," said Gorish, who came across this aircraft while shopping for individual parts.

The plane, which cost the P-8 Program about $200,000, landed at Armitage Field in December and was towed out to WSL where it awaits its first test, planned for this summer.

The original P-8 LFTE plan called for the ground-test aircraft (S1) to arrive at WSL in 2012, when Gorish and his team were to perform several tests on the fuselage and both wings.

"The test schedule for S1 was tight," Gorish said. "It was going to be a challenge to get everything done in the allotted timeframe. Now, we can offload some of the tests planned for S1 onto this 737 airframe and complete all tests as planned."

The purpose of LFTE is to look at how the aircraft will actually be used, identify potential vulnerabilities and then reduce those vulnerabilities.

"Our goal is to help the pilot and the plane complete the mission and return home safely," Gorish said.

The first LFTE test scheduled for the 737 will look at how the hydraulics in the tail portion of the aircraft react when hit with a threat. Another test will evaluate how the oxygen bottles will react to a ballistic impact in a fully pressurized cabin. Gorish and his team will build a surrogate refueling probe for the 737 to match the Poseidon's and test that too. P-8's fuel drain and ventilation system may also be tested on the 737.

Gorish said since the 737 and its subsystems are fairly intact, these tests can be performed more effectively on the 737 vice S1. It is also anticipated that the 737 will be a source of parts to build-up S1 into a more representative P-8A surrogate.

LFTE tests involve shooting various sections of the plane with different anti-aircraft rounds that it might encounter in theater. Engineers then assess the damage and use that data to improve an aircraft's survivability.

"We are very closely linked with PMA-290 and Boeing," Gorish said. "I'm so happy that I was able to get this 737 because it's like an extra insurance policy for the program."

Barry Robert Pepper

Barry Robert Pepper, born April 4, 1970, Campbell River, British Columbia, Canada Spouse Cindy Pepper (1997-present; 1 child)

Barry is known for his roles as Private Daniel Jackson in Saving Private Ryan; as prison guard Dean Stanton in The Green Mile, as Frank Slaughtery in Spike Lee's 25th Hour, as journalist Joseph L. Galloway in We Were Soldiers, his leading role in the film Battlefield Earth, his depiction of Roger Maris in Billy Crystal's HBO film 61*, as Dale Earnhardt in the ESPN produced film 3: The Dale Earnhardt Story, and as Dan Morris in the film Seven Pounds, with Will Smith. Pepper provided the voice for Alex Mercer, the protagonist of the video game Prototype and the voice for Corporal Dunn, a character in the video game Call of Duty: Modern Warfare

Image shows Barry Pepper who plays Joe Galloway, a UPI reporter who accompanied the 1st Battalion, 7th Cavalry into the Ia Drang Valley, the Republic of Vietnam, in November 1965. Photo credit: (USMA / Jim Fox), Barry at a special screening of the movie "We Were Soldiers", at Eisenhower Hall, United States Military Academy

Barry Robert PepperThe U.S. Military Academy (USMA) World Wide Web (WWW) service is provided as a public service.

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