Tuesday, May 31, 2011

First Day of Summer Summer Solstice



The summer solstice, First Day of Summer occurs exactly when the Earth's axial tilt is most inclined towards the sun. Though the summer solstice is an instant in time, the term is used colloquially to refer to the day on which it occurs.

The summer solstice occurs some time between June 20 and June 21 in the Northern Hemisphere. Worldwide, interpretation of the event has varied from culture to culture, most have held a recognition involving holidays, festivals, gatherings, rituals or other celebrations around that time.

The word solstice derives from Latin sol (sun) and sistere (to stand still).

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TEXT RESOURCE: Summer solstice From Wikipedia

Monday, May 30, 2011

Memorial Day Honor the brave May 30, 1917



Title: Honor the brave, Memorial Day, May 30, 1917. Date Created / Published: 1917. Medium: 1 print (poster) : lithograph, color ; 65 x 101 cm. Summary: Poster showing boys with fife and drum leading a parade of veterans and soldiers. Reproduction Number: LC-USZC4-6266 (color film copy transparency)

Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on reproduction.

This IMAGE (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case 1917) are now in the public domain.

Call Number: POS - WWI - US, no. 410 (C size) [P&P] Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA.

Notes: In memory of American soldiers of the wars of 1775-1783, 1812-1814, 1846-1847, 1861-1865, 1898. Monogram unidentified. Forms part of: Willard and Dorothy Straight Collection.

Memorial Day Honor the brave May 30, 1917

Many more images on our Memorial Day Page and Memorial Day Posters Page. We hope you find the image you need :)

Subjects: Memorial Day--1910-1920. World War, 1914-1918--Recruiting & enlistment--United States. Parades & processions--1910-1920. Veterans--1910-1920. Soldiers--1910-1920.

Format: Lithographs--Color--1910-1920. War posters--American--1910-1920. Collections: Posters: World War I Posters.

About the World War I Posters - During World War I, the impact of the poster as a means of communication was greater than at any other time during history. The ability of posters to inspire, inform, and persuade combined with vibrant design trends in many of the participating countries to produce thousands of interesting visual works. The Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Division makes available online approximately 1,900 posters created between 1914 and 1920. Most relate directly to the war.

Sunday, May 29, 2011

Tomb of the Unknowns Tomb of the Unknown Soldier Memorial Day

The Tomb of the Unknowns at Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Va., is also known as the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, and has never been officially named. The Tomb of the Unknowns stands atop a hill overlooking Washington, D.C. On March 4, 1921, Congress approved the burial of an unidentified American soldier from World War I in the plaza of the new Memorial Amphitheater.

The white marble sarcophagus has a flat-faced form and is relieved at the corners and along the sides by neo-classic pilasters, or columns, set into the surface. Sculpted into the east panel which faces Washington, D.C., are three Greek figures representing Peace, Victory, and Valor.

The Tomb sarcophagus was placed above the grave of the Unknown Soldier of World War I. West of the World War I Unknown are the crypts of unknowns from World War II, Korea and Vietnam. Those three graves are marked with white marble slabs flush with the plaza.

The six wreaths (three carved on both the north and south sides on the Tomb are inverted to represent mourning. The six wreaths represent the six major battle campaigns of World War I: Chateau-Terrie; Ardennes; Oisiu-Eisue; Meusse-Argonne; Belleauwood; and Sommes.

Inscription (author unknown) on the back (west side) of the tomb:

HERE RESTS IN HONORED GLORY AN AMERICAN SOLDIER KNOWN BUT TO GOD

CEMETERY HOURS: 7 Days a Week, 365 Days - 8AM - 7PM (April - September). 8AM - 5PM (October - March)

Tomb of the Unknowns Tomb of the Unknown Soldier Memorial DayThe Arlington National Cemetery homepage is a public service of Arlington National Cemetery.

Information presented on this homepage is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline / photo / image credits is requested.

This file is a work of an employee of the Arlington National Cemetery, taken or made during the course of the person's official duties. As a work of the U.S. federal government, the image is in the public domain.

Generally speaking, works created by U.S. Government employees are not eligible for copyright protection in the United States. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office.

Saturday, May 28, 2011

Memorial Day Arlington National Cemetery 2011

Almost four million people a year visit the national cemetery across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C., where a constant vigil is maintained at the Tomb of the Unknowns. Arlington National Cemetery is the site of the changing of a military guard around the clock daily. On Veterans Day 1921, a coffin bearing the body of an unidentified soldier of World War I was entombed adjacent to the Memorial Amphitheater and a monument weighing more than 100 tons placed atop it in 1932. Nearby crypts bear the remains of unknown American service members of World War II and the Korean War. The remains of a previously unknown Vietnam service member were exhumed on May 14, 1998, identified as Air Force 1st Lt. Michael Joseph Blassie, and removed for burial.

Each Memorial Day and Veterans Day, a presidential wreath is placed at the tomb. This may explain why Arlington is America’s most well-known national cemetery, even though it is not the largest or the oldest. Some 230,000 veterans and dependents are buried on the cemetery’s 612 acres. From Pierre L’Enfant, George Washington’s aide during the American Revolution, to American service members killed during Operation Desert Storm, Arlington holds the remains of veterans representing every military action the United States has fought.

Memorial Day Arlington National Cemetery 2011The Arlington National Cemetery homepage is a public service of Arlington National Cemetery.

Information presented on this homepage is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline / photo / image credits is requested.

This file is a work of an employee of the Arlington National Cemetery, taken or made during the course of the person's official duties. As a work of the U.S. federal government, the image is in the public domain.

Generally speaking, works created by U.S. Government employees are not eligible for copyright protection in the United States. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office.

Friday, May 27, 2011

The Virginian: a horseman of the plains

The Virginian: a horseman of the plains The Virginian is published. May 28, 1902:. By Owen Wister, Illustrations by Arthur Ignatius Keller (1866 - 1924).

It was now the Virginian's turn to bet, or leave the game, and he did not speak at once.

Therefore Trampas spoke. "Your bet, you sonof-a ."

The Virginian's pistol came out, and his hand lay on the table, holding it unaimed. And with a voice as gentle as ever, the voice that sounded almost like a caress, but drawling a very little more than usual, so that there was almost a space between each word, he issued his orders to the man Trampas: —

"When you call me that, smile." And he looked at Trampas across the table.

Yes, the voice was gentle. But in my ears it seemed as if somewhere the bell of death was ringing; and silence, like a stroke, fell on the large room. All men present, as if by some magnetic current, had become aware of this crisis. In my ignorance, and the total stoppage of my thoughts, I stood stock-still, and noticed various people crouching, or shifting their positions.

The Virginian: a horseman of the plainsTitle: The Virginian: a horseman of the plains. Author: Owen Wister. Publisher: Macmillan, 1902. Original from: Harvard University. Digitized: May 16, 2008. Length: 504 pages. Subjects: Fiction › Westerns, Cattle stealing, Cowboys, Fiction / Westerns, Vigilantes.

This IMAGE (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case 1902) are now in the public domain.

This file is also in the public domain in countries that figure copyright from the date of death of the artist (post mortem auctoris) in this case Arthur Ignatius Keller (1866 - 1924), and that most commonly runs for a period of 50 to 70 years from December 31st of that year.

"Sit quiet," said the dealer, scornfully to the man near me. "Can't you see he don't want to push trouble? He has handed Trampas the choice to back down or draw his steel."

Then, with equal suddenness and ease, the room came out of its strangeness. Voices and cards, the click of chips, the puff of tobacco, glasses lifted to drink, — this level of smooth relaxation hinted no more plainly of what lay beneath than does the surface tell the depth of the sea.

For Trampas had made his choice. And that choice was not to "draw his steel." If it was knowledge that he sought, he had found it, and no mistake! We heard no further reference to what he had been pleased to style "amatures." In no company would the black-headed man who had visited Arizona be rated a novice at the cool art of self-preservation.

One doubt remained: what kind of a man was Trampas? A public back-down is an unfinished thing, — for some natures at least. I looked at his face, and thought it sullen, but tricky rather than courageous.

Something had been added to my knowledge also. Once again I had heard applied to the Virginian that epithet which Steve so freely used. The same words, identical to the letter. But this time they had produced a pistol. "When you call me that, smile!" So I perceived a new example of the old truth, that the letter means nothing until the spirit gives it life.

TEXT CREDIT: The Virginian: a horseman of the plains

Thursday, May 26, 2011

July 4th fireworks, Washington, D.C.

Title: July 4th fireworks, Washington, D.C. Creator(s): Highsmith, Carol M., 1946-, photographer. Date Created/Published: 2007 July 4. Medium: 1 photograph : digital, TIFF file, color. Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-highsm-04460 (original digital file)

Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication.

Call Number: LC-DIG-highsm- 04460 (ONLINE) [P&P] Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print.

Notes:
Title, date, and subjects provided by the photographer.
Credit line: Carol M. Highsmith's America, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.
Gift and purchase; Carol M. Highsmith; 2009; (DLC/PP-2010:031).
Forms part of: Carol M. Highsmith's America Project in the Carol M. Highsmith Archive.
Photographer's choice (America project).

Subjects:
United States--District of Columbia--Washington (D.C.)
July 4th fireworks.
America.

Format:
Digital photographs--Color--2000-2010.

Collections:
Highsmith (Carol M.) Archive

July 4th fireworks, Washington, D.C.The online presentation of the Carol M. Highsmith Archive features photographs of landmark buildings and architectural renovation projects in Washington, D.C., and throughout the United States. The first 23 groups of photographs contain more than 2,500 images and date from 1980 to 2005, with many views in color as well as black-and-white. Extensive coverage of the Library of Congress Jefferson Building was added in 2007. The archive is expected to grow to more than 100,000 photographs covering all of the United States.

Highsmith, a distinguished and richly-published American photographer, has donated her work to the Library of Congress since 1992. Starting in 2002, Highsmith provided scans or photographs she shot digitally with new donations to allow rapid online access throughout the world. Her generosity in dedicating the rights to the American people for copyright free access also makes this Archive a very special visual resource.

Wednesday, May 25, 2011

Pope Alexander VI Rodrigo Lanzol Borja

It is reported, that some time before Borgia entered the conclave, in order to obtain cardinal Sforza's consent to his election, he sent four mules to his house, loaded with plate, under pretence of being kept there till the conclave was over, which silver Sforza had for his vote.

On the 2d day of August, 1492, the affair was brought to a conclusion, and cardinal Roderick, with the concurring votes of twenty-two cardinals, declared Pope,t by the name of Alexander the Sixth. As soon as he perceived the election determined in his favour, it is reported he expressed himself in these words:

"Am I then Pope the Vicar of Christ?" Sforza made answer, "Yes, holy father; and we hope by your election to give glory to God, repose to his church, and joy to Christendom; you being by the Almighty chosen as the most worthy of all your brethren." To which his holiness made answer: "We hope God will grant us his powerful assistance, notwithstanding of our weakness, being desirous to follow the dictates of the Holy Ghost, and with intrepidity to promulgate those holy laws already ratified in heaven. Although this is a great weight with which we are loaded, yet we hope the same assistance will be given us as it was to St. Peter, when the keys of heaven were put into his hands, and the helm of the church entrusted to his care,—too great a charge for mortal man without such divine assistance,—and yet God promised that his Spirit should direct him. Nor do we doubt but every one of yon will show that holy obedience due to the head of the church, in imitation of that which Christ's flock were obliged to give to the prince of the apostles."

Pope Alexander VI Rodrigo Lanzol BorjaPortrait of Pope Alexander VI. Painting located at Corridoio Vasariano (museum) in Florence (Firenze), Italy. Measures of painting: 59 x 44 cm. Artist: Cristofano dell'Altissimo (1525–1605) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.

Title: The lives of Pope Alexander VI and his son Cæsar Borgia. Author: Alexander Gordon. Publisher: J. Campbell, 1844. Original from: Harvard University. Digitized: Apr 6, 2006. Length: 232 pages

This IMAGE (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this circa 1565) are now in the public domain.

This file is also in the public domain in countries that figure copyright from the date of death of the artist (post mortem auctoris) in this case Cristofano dell'Altissimo (1525–1605), and that most commonly runs for a period of 50 to 70 years from December 31st of that year.

This was the substance of Pope Alexander's speech on his election; it was, however, observed he made an unusual haste in getting himself dressed in the pontifical habit, as if the consciousness of the simony, by which he obtained his new dignity, had made him afraid of losing it before all the formalities had passed; on this account he seemed to want his election might be known as soon as possible; and accordingly ordered small scrolls of paper, with his name as Pope written in Latin, to be thrown over the windows of the Vatican, amongst the people.

These, and some other vain-glorious circumstances of the like nature, began to be observed with surprise, which made cardinal Medici whisper in Lorenzo Cibo's ears these words: "My lord," says he, "we are betrayed into the hands of one of the most rapacious wolves that perhaps the world ever saw, from whom if we do not fly, he will infallibly devour us." Which prophecy was very soon verified to their sad experience.

No sooner was Alexander dressed in his pontifical habit, than he was carried to St. Peter's church, where the usual ceremonies were performed, and where multitudes came crowding to see the new Pope: from thence he was brought back to his apartments in the Vatican, where, when he arrived, he made another speech to the cardinal, in which he feigned a great deal of new zeal and sanctity, exhorting them to a reformation of their way of living, telling, that whoever amongst them had been guilty of avarice and simony, he was resolved to look into such conduct in a very impartial manner. By all which, he showed plainly that those cardinals with whom he had made the aforesaid stipulations for advancing him to the pontificate, had little to hope with regard to his performing the bargain: nay, it was very remarkable, that* all those mercenary cardinals, who were the chief instruments of his election, as a chastisement for their horrid simony, were some time after, the very persons singled out by Pope Alexander for ruin and death, as was seen in his barbarity and cruelty committed on Sforza, Riario, cardinal Michiele, and others, who sold their votes, as if it had been by auction.

Some of them were sent into exile,t others laid up in jail, and some put to the most cruel deaths. But this new and unexpected declaration, which we just now mentioned, struck no small terror into the minds of those cardinals who had been the authors of his promotion, and showed them plainly how expert their new Pope had been in all the arts of hypocrisyJ and deceit: in fine, it was a clear indication that the vengeance of heaven was at hand to punish their detestable crimes. On this, they thought of flying from him, but that they found difficult; to confess openly their faults, but that could help them nothing; to revoke his election, but it was too late, having themselves been the chief architects, who had laid the first corner-stone of that woful edifice.

TEXT CREDIT: The lives of Pope Alexander VI and his son Cæsar Borgia By Alexander Gordon

Tuesday, May 24, 2011

People looking at fireworks Vintage

People looking at fireworks Vintage, The day the Exposition opened it was discovered that foot-bridges would play an important role and that one could not see the different parts of the show without much climbing up and down. One may enter the Exposition from any side without taking a train or an omnibus; but as it spreads over several quarters of Paris, it has been necessary to leave free the streets and avenues through which it cuts, lest the circulation of the city should be interrupted. For this reason characteristic foot-bridges (jmsereUes) have been built, which rise eighteen feet above the avenues. The crowd grumbles at this additional fatigue; but the stream of humanity flows unceasingly from morning until far into the night, and on Sundays a police service is necessary to regulate this sort of travel.

Street-lamps shed about them a uniform luster, crude and white; the lines of the Tour Eiffel are traced by means of steady-burning electric lights, and on the cornices of the buildings sparkle rows of gas-jets, trembling in the breeze as though alive; at the end of the Champ de Mars the Palace of Electricity is resplendent in jewels of color; and from the Chateau d'Eau, a hundred feet high, luminous fountains fall in dazzling cascades. From the top of the Tour Eiffel, from the summit of the German lighthouse, immense rays of electric light search the horizon and touch the far-off buildings of sleeping Paris with the glow of fire, or suddenly stream down upon the crowds massed in the gardens. Here, as in a flash of lightning, one sees thousands of white faces, compact and swaying.

people looking at fireworksTitle: The Century, Volume 61. Image by: Félix Edouard Vallotton (December 28, 1865 – December 29, 1925) Publisher: The Century Co., 1901. Original from: Harvard University. Digitized: Mar 16, 2007. Subjects: Fiction › Science Fiction › General.

This IMAGE (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case 1901) are now in the public domain.

This file is also in the public domain in countries that figure copyright from the date of death of the artist (post mortem auctoris) in this case Félix Edouard Vallotton (December 28, 1865 – December 29, 1925), and that most commonly runs for a period of 50 to 70 years from December 31st of that year.

From the height of the Palais d'Optique a revolving light turns slowly, passing under its placid and monotonous examination the same walls and the same shady corners. Lanterns hung by thousands in the tree branches seem like enormous blood oranges in a new garden of the Hesperides. The crowds wait patiently for the fireworks, which make a splendid finish to the day's festivity. Close by one can see the outlines of the dense mass of spectators, fading away into obscurity. A report resounds, all the faces are uplifted eyes pierce the gloom and suddenly in the sky which seems blacker by comparison with so much brilliancy centered on the earth, a marvelous flower of light unfolds. Finally a drum sounds the retreat and the happy crowds disperse.

TEXT CREDIT: The Century, Volume 61

Monday, May 23, 2011

Josh Billings (Henry Wheeler Shaw)

Henry W. Shaw was born at Lanesborough, Mass., in 1820. His father Henry Shaw was a member of the Massachusetts legislature for twenty-five years, and also member of Congress. At the age of fourteen the sou Henry went West, and for several years was engaged in the various occupations of steering steamboats, keeping a country store, teaching school, acting as auctioneer or cattle-driver. He at last became very weary of this irregular life. In 1865 he moved to Poughkeepsie and began editing a paper. There it was that he wrote his first articles signed "Josh Billings" which attracted attention principally from their phonetic spelling.

He told a friend, in answer to a letter of inquiry, the following about himself: "There is one thing perhaps a little peculiar. I never wrote a line for the public eye until after I was forty five years old. I entered Hamilton College when I was fourteen; stayed out the freshman year, and then fled to the edge of civilization. My first book Sayings of Josh Billings was issued about 1866. My next book Josh Billings on Ice has had a good sale. In 1870 I put forth my Josh Billings's Farmer's Almanax. Of this ninety thousand copies sold the first year, one hundred and seventeen thousand the second, and one hundred thousand the third. The Chicago fire in 1872 hurt the sale very much. I have been married thirty years, have two daughters; one lives in Venezuela, and the other in New York. I have four grandchildren, which are my glory and strength. I enjoy life, and love the funny side of all things."

Petroleum V. Nasby, Mark Twain and Josh BillingsImage Source - Title: The Century illustrated monthly magazine, Volume 63 Publisher: The Century Co., 1902. Original from: Indiana University. Digitized: Jan 21, 2009.

From a photograph lent by Robinson Locke. Half-tone plate engraved by F.M. Wellington. Petroleum V. Nasby, Mark Twain and Josh Billings.

This IMAGE (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case 1902) are now in the public domain.
He first appeared before the public in his Essa on the Muel. From that time until his death his career was one of continued financial success. He said in this "Essa" that if called upon to mourn at a mule's funeral he would stand at his head, for there was no accounting for even a dead mule. His Farmer's Almnnax in ten years netted the author and the publisher thirty thousand dollars each. His humor was dry and homely, but it had a practical philosophy which appealed to the average reader.

His appearance was melancholy and he wore ill-fitting clothes which gave him a peculiar look; he was readily recognized by one who had seen him before or who had heard him described. His friends were warmly attached to him.

His first literary efforts were a failure; or as he put it, "I didn't strike ile, and concluded I was boring with a pretty poor gimlet." His Cacography was more successful, his Almanax made him famous, and his Life and Adventures of Josh Billings was a very popular book. Then he published Josh Billing*, His Sayings, and Josh Billings, His Works. He died at Monterey, Cal., 1885.

His other works are Josh Billings on Ice, Everybody's Friend, Josh Billings's Spice Box.

The cause of his first failure was that people failed to appreciate the funny things until he adopted the phonetic spelling.

At one time he wrote for the "New York Weekly" at a salary of four thousand dollars. He delivered about eighty lectures a year, and would frequently receive one hundred and fifty dollars for each of these.

WIT AND WISDOM OF JOSH BILLINGS.

If you want tew git a sure krop, and a big yield for the seed, sow wjld oata.

Man was created a little lower than the angels, and has bin gittin a little lower ever since.

When a feller gits a goin down hil, it dus Beem as tho evrything had been greased for theokashun.

It is dreadful easy to be a phool—a man kau be one arid not know it.

Luv is like the measles, we kant alwas tell when we ketched it, and ain't apt tew hav it severe but oust, and then It ain't kounted mutch unless it strikes inly.

The best way to doraestikate rats that ever I saw, is tew surround them gently with a steel trap; you can reason with them then tew great advantage. Rats are about az uncalled for az a pain in the small ov the back. They originally cum from Norway, and i wish they had originally staid thare.

TEXT CREDIT: American authors: a hand-book of American literature from early colonial to living writers

IMAGE CREDIT: The Century illustrated monthly magazine, Volume 63

Sunday, May 22, 2011

Fred Merkle, New York Giants (Merkle's Boner)

Title: [Fred Merkle, New York Giants, baseball card portrait] Other Title: Card set: Gold Borders (T205) Related Names: American Tobacco Company , sponsor.

Date Created/Published: 1911. Medium: 1 photomechanical print. Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-bbc-1409f (digital file from original, front) LC-DIG-bbc-1409b (digital file from original, back)

Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication. Access Advisory: Restricted access: Materials in this collection are extremely fragile and cannot be served.

This IMAGE (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case 1908) are now in the public domain.

Call Number: LOT 13163-25, no. 67 [P&P] Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print

Fred Merkle, New York Giants (Merkle's Boner)Notes:

Baseball card title devised by Library staff.
Issued by: American Tobacco Company.
Forms part of: Baseball cards from the Benjamin K. Edwards Collection.

Subjects:
Merkle, Fred (Team member)
New York Giants
New York
National League
first baseman

Format:
Baseball cards--1910-1920.
Photomechanical prints--1910-1920.

Collections:
Baseball Cards

Part of: Baseball cards from the Benjamin K. Edwards Collection.

On September 23, 1908 the New York Giants in a game against the Chicago Cubs, 19 years old (the youngest player in the National League), Merkle committed a baserunning error known as "Merkle's Boner" that earned him the nickname "Bonehead."

In the bottom of the 9th inning, Merkle came to bat with two outs, and the score tied 1-1. Moose McCormick was on first base. Merkle singled and McCormick advanced to third. Al Bridwell, the next batter, followed with a single. McCormick came home, apparently scoring the winning run. The fans, under the impression that the game was over, ran onto the field.

Merkle, thinking the game was over, ran to the Giants' clubhouse without touching second base. Cubs second baseman Johnny Evers noticed, and after retrieving a ball and touching second base he appealed to umpire Hank O'Day to call Merkle out. Since Merkle had not touched the base, the umpire called him out on a force play, McCormick's run did not count.

The run being nullified, the Giants' "victory" was erased, and the game remained tied. The thousands of fans on the field as well as the darkness in the days before lighted stadiums prevented resumption of the game that was declared a tie. The Giants and the Cubs ended the season tied for first place. On October 8, the Cubs won the makeup game, 4-2, and the National League pennant.

TEXT RESOURCE: Merkle's Boner

Saturday, May 21, 2011

The Wright brothers Type A Flyer

The Wright brothers, Orville (August 19, 1871 – January 30, 1948) and Wilbur (April 16, 1867 – May 30, 1912) On May 22, 1906 – The Wright brothers were granted U.S. patent number 821,393 for their "Flying-Machine".

Title: WRIGHT BROTHERS AIRPLANE, ETC. TYPE A PLANE AT FORT MYER. Creator(s): Harris & Ewing, photographer. Date Created / Published: 1909. Medium: 1 negative : glass ; 5 x 7 in. or smaller. Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-hec-06070 (digital file from original negative) (first image)

Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication.

Call Number: LC-H261- 5303 [P&P] Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print.

Notes: Title and date from unverified caption data received with the Harris & Ewing Collection. Gift; Harris & Ewing, Inc. 1955. General information about the Harris & Ewing Collection is available at http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.hec Temp. note: Batch one.

Subjects: United States--District of Columbia--Washington (D.C.) Format: Glass negatives. Collections: Harris and Ewing Collection.

The Wright brothers Type A Flyer

The Wright brothers Type A Flyer
Between October 1905, and February 1908, the Wright brothers did no flying. They were afraid that spies would steal their invention, so they kept it hidden from public view. In February 1908, they finally signed a contract with the United States Army, and in March of that year they negotiated a contract with a French company. They developed a new aircraft called the "Type A." Wilbur took one to France to demonstrate it while Orville tested one for the Army. On September 17, 1908, during the last test flight for the Army, the plane developed propeller troubles and crashed killing Lieutenant T. E. Selfridge and breaking Orville's leg. However, this accident did not deter the Army's interest in the plane and the contract was fulfilled.

By an unknown photographer, September 1908. Wright Aeroplane, Ft. Myer, VA. Orville Wright in plane. Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. (111-RB-826) (second image)

The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration.

This IMAGE (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case Circa 1908) are now in the public domain.

Friday, May 20, 2011

Clara Barton American National Red Cross

Clarissa Harlowe "Clara" Barton (December 25, 1821 – April 12, 1912) American National Red Cross.

On May 21, 1881, the first convention in the United States to consider the Red Cross movement was held in Washington, and a constitution and bylaws adopted. Five objects of association were named: first, to secure the adoption in the United States of the international treaty; second, to obtain the recognition of our government; third, to organize a system of national relief and apply the same in war, pestilence, famine, or other calamities; fourth, to collect and diffuse information; and fifth, to cooperate with all other national societies.

On June 9, 1881, the officers were elected as follows: Clara Barton, president; Judge William Lawrence, vice president; Dr. Alex. Y. P. Garnett, vice president, D. C; A. S. Solomons, treasurer; George Kennon, secretary. The executive board consisted of Judge William Lawrence, Dr. George B. Loring, Gen. S. D. Sturgis, Mrs. S. A. Martha Canfield, Mr. Walter P. Phillips, Clara Barton, Walker Blaine, Col. R. J. Huiston, N. B. Taylor, John R. Van Wormer, and William N. Sliney. Miss Barton was also the corresponding secretary, and Gen. S. D. Mussey consulting counsel.

In an address outlining the purpose of the work Miss Barton says:

"I have never classed the Red Cross societies with charities. I have rather considered them as a wise national provision which seeks to govern and store up something against an hour of sudden need."'

Clara Barton American National Red CrossClara Barton circa 1902 photographed in Saint Petersburg, Russia while attending the Seventh International Red Cross Conference.

Image Source: Clara Barton National Historic Site - Clara Barton Photographs (U.S. National Park Service)

Ownership: Information created or owned by the NPS and presented on this website, unless otherwise indicated, is considered in the public domain. It may be distributed or copied as permitted by applicable law.

This IMAGE (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case Circa 1902) are now in the public domain.

Under the administration of President Arthur, in July, 1882, the American branch of the Red Cross was incorporated into the international society, and received into the fellowship of the kindred societies of thirty one other nations. It was the Forty-seventh Congress to which is due the honor of legislative enactment. Hon. Oliver D. Carger of Michigan, Hon. William Windom of Minnesota, Senator E. G. Lapham of New York, and Senators Morgan of Alabama, Edmunds of Vermont, Hawley of Connecticut, Anthony of Rhode Island, and Hoar of Massachusetts were all especially prominent in aiding the work. The final concurrence and adhesion of the United States was learned with great satisfaction by the affiliated societies.

Since this final action Miss Barton has been variously engaged in furthering the work. In the fires that devastated Wisconsin, the floods that caused such suffering at Johnstown, Pa., the earthquake horror at Charleston, S. C,—in all these the Red Cross has mitigated and relieved suffering to an incalculable degree. Tokens of distinguished consideration and approval have

poured in upon Clara Barton from nearly every court in Europe; but more glowing and brilliant than the Red Cross brooch from the grand duchess of Baden; the Gold Cross of Remembrance from a grand duke, the Iron Cross of Merit from the emperor of Germany, or the Red Cross of Merit with the colors of the empire—more brilliant than these are the never-fading ornaments of a noble spirit,—of tenderness, devotion to an unselfish purpose, love for humanity, and reverence for the divine will. These qualities are the priceless possessions of Clara Barton, and crown her with a matchless coronet of love and honor.

TEXT CREDIT: The Chautauquan, Volume 22 By Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle, Chautauqua Institution.

Wednesday, May 18, 2011

The great battle of Armageddon The end of the world

The great battle of Armageddon The end of the world. Mount Armageddon Hebrew: הַר מְגִדּוֹ‎, Har Megiddo is the site of a battle during the end times according to some sects within the Abrahamic religions.

Whenever that event happens, it will serve as a key to the right explanation of the fifth vial. The kings of the East are most probably the Jews, for the restoration of whom the overthrow of the Turkish empire will prepare a way Under this vial, the kings of the Latin earth will begin to be gathered together for the great battle of Armageddon by the beast and the false prophet.

The vintage is the catastrophe of the great drama of the 1260 years, and synchronizes with the last vial, or the vial of consummation At the pouring out of the seventh vial, three important events take place: the earthquake, by which the Latin city is divided in three parts; the overthrow of the great scarlet whore, or the spiritual Babylon; and the battle of Armageddon. The 17th, 18th, and 19th, chapters of the Revelation all belong to the last vial, or the times of the vintage. The war, which Page will be decided at Armageddon, will be undertaken by a confederacy of the beast, the false prophet, and the kings of the Latin or Papal earth.

The infidel king will be deeply concerned in it. The confederacy will probably be made against the Protestant powers, and the Jews now about to be restored to their own country. The infidel king may possibly before this period, become the last head of the beast; and thus take the lead in the expedition, as he is represented doing by Daniel.

The four parallel prophecies of St. John, Daniel, Zechariah, and Joel, cited and compared with each other. These corresponding prophecies throw much light upon the events of the seventh vial. The battle of Armageddon will literally be fought in Palestine between the, two seas. The particular scene of the conflict will be Megiddo ; for Armageddon signifies the destruction at Megiddo.

The great battle of Armageddon The end of the world

The great battle of Armageddon The end of the world

Description: Megiddo archaeological site, Israel. Date: 2008-01-04 (original upload date). Source: Photograph taken by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of WoKilOoster). Author: Original uploader was Wilson44691 at en.wikipedia. Permission

(Reusing this file) Released into the public domain (by the author).

This work has been released into the public domain by its author, Wilson44691. This applies worldwide. In some countries this may not be legally possible; if so: Wilson44691 grants anyone the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law.

Description: Tel Megiddo. Date: uploaded 21-07-2007. Source: he-wiki. Author: Created by משתמש:אסף.צ uploaded: Daniel.baranek. Permission: (Reusing this file) Public domain.

This work has been released into the public domain by its author, אסף.צ. This applies worldwide. In some countries this may not be legally possible; if so: אסף.צ grants anyone the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law.

The war, which this battle will terminate, will, in one sense or another, be a religious war or crusade. In whatever manner protestant powers may be concerned in it, part of its object will evidently be to attack such of the Jews as shall have begun to be restored to their own land by the instrumentality of the then prevailing maritime state. The infidel king and his confederates wilt at first succeed in taking Jerusalem, but afterwards they will totally be overthrown at Megiddo. Their rout will in some measure at least be accomplished by means of a panic fear, which will supernaturally be sent upon them.

A third part of the confederates will be spared and converted. This will most probably be the least guilty of the three parts into which the great Latin city will be divided. The maritime power, that begins to restore the Jews, will evidently be hostile to the views of the beast and the false prophet. It will therefore most probably be a protestant power. The Jews will be restored at two distinct and successive times. A summing up of the particulars, which may be collected from prophecy, relative to the restoration of the Jews.

TEXT CREDIT: A dissertation on prophecies, that have been fulfilled, are now fulfilling, or will hereafter be fulfilled: relative to the great period of 1260 years; the papal and Mohammedan apostacies: the tyrannical reign of antichrist, or the infidel power; and the restoration of the Jews, Volume 2

This is the end, beautiful friend. This is the end, my only friend, the end

Of our elaborate plans, the end. Of everything that stands, the end

No safety or surprise, the end. I'll never look into your eyes, again

Image: Tel Megiddo is a tell in northern Israel near Kibbutz Megiddo, about 30 km south-east of Haifa, known for its historical, geographical, and theological importance, especially under its Greek name Armageddon. Text: The Doors. Editing/mashup/sookietex

More about this image and story at Public Domain Clip Art - http://publicdomainclip-art.blogspot.com/2011/05/great-battle-of-armageddon-end-of-world.html

Tuesday, May 17, 2011

Echo aka “the Big Head” Madison Square Park

Echo from Greek mythology is forty-four feet tall with a white marble-dusted surface on exhibit in Madison Square Park by Spanish sculptor Jaume Plensa born in Barcelona in 1955. Plensa has exhibited more than 30 major public art projects around the world. Echo is his New York City public art debut.

Located Between Fifth & Madison Avenues, 23rd & 26th Streets in Manhattan, Madison Square Park has existed as a public space since 1686. Named for James Madison, fourth President of the United States, Madison Square was formally opened as a public park in 1847.

Substantial Sponsorship for Echo is provided by MANGO, Tiffany & Co., and Galerie Lelong.

Support for Echo is provided by Roberta and Michael Joseph, Toby Devan Lewis, Gerald Lippes and Jody Ulrich, Ronald A. Pizzuti, Danny and Audrey Meyer, Sorgente Group, Time Out New York, The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Ace Hotel New York, NYC & Company, and Anonymous patrons. Delta Air Lines is the official airline of Mad. Sq. Art. This project is supported in part with public funds from the New York City Department of Cultural Affairs, in partnership with the City Council. Mad. Sq. Art is made possible by the leadership and generosity of the many friends of the Madison Square Park Conservancy.

Echo aka the Big Head

Echo aka the Big Head

Echo aka the Big Head
Image License: I, (sookietex) the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. This applies worldwide. In case this is not legally possible, I grant any entity the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law.

If these images are subject to copyright in your jurisdiction, i (sookietex) the copyright holder have irrevocably released all rights to it, allowing it to be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, used, modified, built upon, or otherwise exploited in any way by anyone for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial, with or without attribution of the author, as if in the public domain.

TEXT RESOURCES: Madison Square Park Conservancy

Monday, May 16, 2011

Glorification of the Eucharist by Ventura Salimbeni

Glorification of the Eucharist by Ventura Salimbeni, Ventura di Archangelo Salimbeni also later called Bevilacqua January 20, 1568 – 1613

Ventura Salimbeni, the son of Arcangiolo Salimbeni, passes for the third best scholar of that master; though, in truth, he could have received but few lessons from his father. Ventura quitted home at a very early age, and, wandering through the different cities of Lombardy, studied the works of Coreggio and other Lombard masters, whose style was then growing into repute in Tuscany. He next repaired to Rome, and contrived to raise great expectations of his future eminence, which, having afterwards given himself up to pleasure, he never realized.

He left behind him various frescos of these, the Abraham entertaining the Angels, in one of the chapels of the Jesuit church, best bespeaks the consummate master. We there discern a sprightliness and gracefulness in the colouring and countenances, which he ever afterwards retained: we discern, too, a carefulness of design and chiaroscuro, which he afterwards but too frequently neglected. Ventura sometimes wrought in company with Vanni; and, though the latter was eight years younger than himself, not improbably derived benefit from him.

Certain it is, that in many of his works he resembles him in his imitation of Barocci's style; while he scarcely yields to him in gracefulness of contour, expression, or soft and lucid colouring. Ventura's performances in S. Quirico and S. Domemco are much admired: in the former is the Angel appearing at the Sepulchre of Christ; in the latter, a Crucifixion, with various Saints, which surpasses most of his other works; though there are some of great merit in ther places at Siena; especially where he was stimulated by the proximity of the more distinguished masters of his native school.

Glorification of the Eucharist by Ventura SalimbeniHe also produced some beautiful pieces at Florence, in the cloisters of the Servites, where he wrought in competition with Poccetti; and in the Pisan cathedral, where he had to contend with several eminent artists. The Espousals of the Virgin in the cathedral of Foligno; the St. Gregory, in St. Peter's, at Perugia; other works at Lucca, Pavia, and various cities of Italy, sufficiently corroborate Baglione's statement, that he was never for continuing long in one place.
At Genoa, however, his stay was more protracted. The beautiful chamber in the Casa Adorno, together with some other works executed there, are still in existence, though certain others of his have perished.

Glorification of the Eucharist by Ventura Salimbeni in the church of St. Peter in Montalcino (Siena, Italy), painted Circa 1600 by Ventura (also later called Bevilacqua) Salimbeni. The sphere between the figures of the Holy Trinity is painted in many Trinity representations, is a symbol of the "Creation Globe", and in this particular painting contains the illustration of the Sun and the Moon.

This IMAGE (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case Circa 1600) are now in the public domain.

This file is also in the public domain in countries that figure copyright from the date of death of the artist (post mortem auctoris) in this case Ventura Salimbeni (1568 – 1613), and that most commonly runs for a period of 50 to 70 years from December 31st of that year.

TEXT CREDIT: Lanzi's luminaries of painting By G.W.D Evans

Sunday, May 15, 2011

The Madonna with Saint Giovannino by Domenico Ghirlandaio

The Madonna with Saint Giovannino (The Madonna and Child with the infant St. John) by Domenico Ghirlandaio (Domenico di Tommaso di Currado di Doffo Bigordi 1449 - 1494), on display in the Sala d'Ercole in Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, Italy.

More about this image and story at Public Domain Clip Art - http://publicdomainclip-art.blogspot.com/search/label/Ancient%20Aliens

Domenico Ghirlandaio, whose family name was Bigordi, was born at Florence in 1449, and died there in 1494. We have seen that the Florentine school developed in several directions, but in Ghirlandaio we meet with a remarkable union of the various tendencies it had taken. He was brought up as a goldsmith, and afterwards became a pupil of Alesso Baldovinctti, principally as a worker in mosaic, but he was fully alive to the merits of all his great predecessors among the Florentines, ancient and modern. We see from his works that he was acquainted with those of Giotto, and he made ;i special study of Masaccio whom he followed as a painter of fresco.

The first we hear of his employment as an artist is in 1475, when, on the 28th of November, he began a painting in the Vatican Library, and we find at the same time records of payments to his brother David for work done at the same place down to May 1476 All that is now left of Ghirlandaio's work in Rome is a picture in the Sistine painted then or later—the Call of SS. Peter and Andrew. The composition is well co-ordinated, the principal group is sufficiently conspicuous, the landscape and episodes picturesque, and the perspective thoroughly understood; the colouring is harsher than usual in a Florentine, but for simplicity and clearness the picture is one of the best in the chapel.

The Madonna and Child with the infant St. JohnIn Florence his chief works were some frescoes in the Church of Ognisanti— S. Jerome, as a companion to Botticelli's S. Augustine, a grave and dignified figure; and the Last Supper, in the refectory, simply treated. The smaller picture of the same subject in the refectory of S. Marco is but a replica in the main of this—the traditional long table, with S. John leaning on Christ and Judas- alone in the foreground. From 1481 till 1485 he was busy with a wall in an upper room of the Palazzo Vecchio—a grand architectural composition, with S. Zenobius enthroned and other figures; quite in the distance spreads a landscape.

This was followed by a still more important work, the decoration of the chapel of the Sassctti family in Santa Trinita, signed and dated 5th December 1485. At the sides of the altar kneel the donor Francesco Sassctti and Nera his wife. Italian art had at this date produced nothing that so nearly approaches the figures of the donors in the great Ghent altarpiece; nor is it in technique only, but in the dignity of realism that Ghirlandaio comes near to the Flemish painters. On the three walls are frescoes of scenes from the life of S. Francis of Assisi—his parting from his father, the founding of the order, the ordeal by fire, the reception of the stigmata, the raising of a dead child, and the death of the saint. We see that Giotto's work in S. Croce had made its mark on the younger painter, but he has translated him into the newer style. The action is carried on with calm simplicity, the heads have all the character of portraits—indeed some of the most distinguished sons of Florence figure in the second subject—and the scenes are set amid views of Florence itself. In the last of the series an impressive contrast is marked between the lamenting brethren who kiss the Saint's feet and hands and the ceremonial gravity of the priests, at their head the abbot with his glasses on his nose; in treatment, drawing, and modelling Ghirlandaio excels every fresco-painter since Masaccio, and on these walls he shows a marked advance on all his former works in colour and technique. In the frescoes in the Chapel of S. Fina at S. Gimignano the ceiling and arches are filled with figures; on the walls are the Mass of S. Gregory and the death of that saint,—in all essential details a repetition of that of S. Francis.

This IMAGE (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case Circa 1481) are now in the public domain.

This file is also in the public domain in countries that figure copyright from the date of death of the artist (post mortem auctoris) in this case Domenico Ghirlandaio (c. 1449 – c. 1494), and that most commonly runs for a period of 50 to 70 years from December 31st of that year.

TEXT CREDIT: History of Ancient, Early Christian, and Mediaeval Painting, Volume 2, By Alfred Friedrich Gottfried Albert Woltmann, Karl Woermann

Saturday, May 14, 2011

The Annunciation Carlo Crivelli

Carlo Crivelli is one of those painters about whose life hardly any information, traditional or otherwise, has come down to us. But about his artistic origin, with the exception of one questionable statement, there is an absolute blank; and we are reduced to the necessity of making his pictures tell their own story about the masters under whom he studied, and the school to which he belonged. These are conditions which expose the inquirer to many dangers and temptations; and the greatest care must be taken not to go beyond the facts contained in the pictures, or to allow the imagination to usurp the place of legitimate inference. Fortunately in the case of Crivelli some at least of the inferences, and perhaps those of most importance, are so clear, that we may feel some confidence when we make them that we have got near to the truth. Crivelli, as we shall see, whenever he signed a picture, never forgot to remind the world that he was a Venetian. Here then is our starting-point. When we consider that he left Venice early in his career, never apparently to return.

The most superficial glance at Crivelli's pictures would tell us that he has nothing in common with what is known as Venetian art proper, the school of the Bellini and Giorgione, of Titian and Tintoret. But long before the Bellini, Venice had its painters with a character and tradition of their own. While it is probably true that all Italian art is ultimately indebted to Byzantine inspiration, this influence was more direct in the case of Venice than elsewhere. At a time when, on the western side of Italy, the older forms of painting were being endowed with new life and undergoing a new birth, Venice with her Eastern connections preserved the artistic traditions of Constantinople. But Venice could not remain for ever unaffected by the astonishing progress which was being made by national Italian art, and early in the fifteenth century we find the old Venetiaift school in process of transformation under the influence of Umbrian and Veronese masters.* This new generation, reinforced perhaps by the infusion of a German element, had its leading representatives in the Vivarini of Murano. They, in their turn, were affected by the new centre of artistic teaching which had lately sprung up in Padua, associated with the name of Squarcione. Under the influence of each of these elements, the old Venetian school, the painters of Murano, and the school of Padua, Crivelli directly or indirectly came and we will endeavour now to show how his early pictures provide the evidence for this statement.

The Annunciation Carlo CrivelliThe Annunciation. Wood, 2'07" m x 1'46" m = 6 ft. 10 1/2 x 4 ft. 10 1/2. [No. 739.]

A street scene. To right a house with elaborate architectural ornaments and an open loggia above with birds and flowers. Through the open door is seen the Virgin kneeling, while over her head floats the Dove which has descended from the sky in a ray of light piercing the wall. On the base of the pilasters flanking the door is inscribed "Opus Karoli Crivelli Veneti 1486." In the street outside, facing a window, kneels the angel, with lily in left hand and blessing with the right. Beside him kneels St. Emidius, in cope and mitre, holding a model of the town of Ascoli. To left steps lead up to a house-door where a small group is talking. The street is closed by a richly-decorated arch through which is seen the city wall. Several small figures passing to and fro. On the face of the step at the bottom of the picture are the words "Libertas ecclesiastica" between three escutcheons: in the centre Pope Innocent VIII. ; right, the town of Ascoli; left, Prospero Caffarelli, Bishop of Ascoli.

Painted for the Convent of the Annunziata, at Ascoli, by order of the municipality, to commemorate the charter of 1482. (See p. 20.) It remained in the domestic chapel of the Frati till 1811, when it was removed, by order of the Government, to Milan, and deposited in the Brera. After 1815 it passed into private hands, and formed part of the Solly collection, whence it came in 1847 to Mr Labouchere (Lord Taunton), who presented it to the National Gallery in 1864.

This IMAGE (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case Circa 1486) are now in the public domain.

This file is also in the public domain in countries that figure copyright from the date of death of the artist (post mortem auctoris) in this case Carlo Crivelli (c. 1435 – c. 1495), and that most commonly runs for a period of 50 to 70 years from December 31st of that year.

TEXT CREDIT: Carlo Crivelli By Gordon McNeil Rushforth

The Annunciation Carlo Crivelli More about this image and story at Public Domain Clip Art - http://publicdomainclip-art.blogspot.com/search/label/Ancient%20Aliens

A street scene. To right a house with elaborate architectural ornaments and an open loggia above with birds and flowers. Through the open door is seen the Virgin kneeling, while over her head floats the Dove which has descended from the sky in a ray of light piercing the wall.

Friday, May 13, 2011

Meriwether Lewis and William Clark

"On Monday, 14 of May, 1804, we left our establishment at the mouth of the River du Bois, or Wood River, a small river which falls into the Mississippi, on the east side, a mile below the Missouri"
As it was first organized, the party consisted of twenty-nine members, — the two officers, nine young Kentuckians, fourteen soldiers of the regular army who had volunteered to accompany the expedition, two French watermen, an interpreter and hunter, and a negro servant of Captain Clark. At St. Louis there were sixteen additional recruits, — an Indian hunter and interpreter, and fifteen boatmen, who were to go as far as the villages of the Mandan Nation. This brought the total to forty-five.

A broadly inclusive statement must suffice to characterize the non-commissioned men. They were brave, sturdy, able; amenable to discipline, yet full of original resource; ideal subordinates, yet almost every one fitted by nature for command, if occasion should arise. They proved themselves equal to all emergencies. At least five of these men kept journals, and no better index to their character need be asked than that afforded by the manuscript records. If ever there was temptation to color and adorn a narrative with the stuff that makes travelers' tales attractive, it was here; yet in none of the journals is there to be found a departure from plain, simple truth-telling. Their matter-of-fact tone would render them almost commonplace, if the reader did not take pains to remember what it all meant. Nowhere is there anything like posing for effect; the nearest approach to it is in the initial entry in the diary of that excellent Irishman, Private Patrick Gass, — and parts of this have been branded as apocryphal, the interpolation of an enthusiastic editor: —

Meriwether Lewis and William ClarkTitle: Lewis and Clark: Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, Issue 8 of The Riverside biographical series. Author: William Rheem Lighton. Publisher: Houghton, Mifflin and company, 1901. Original from: Harvard University. Digitized: Jan 28, 2009, Length: 159 pages. Subjects: Lewis and Clark Expedition/ (1804-1806)

This IMAGE (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case 1901) are now in the public domain.

"On Monday, 14 of May, 1804, we left our establishment at the mouth of the River du Bois, or Wood River, a small river which falls into the Mississippi, on the east side, a mile below the Missouri, and having crossed the Mississippi proceeded up the Missouri on our intended voyage of discovery, under the command of Captain Clarke. Captain Lewis was to join us in two or three days on our passage. . . . The expedition was embarked on board a batteau? and two periogues. The day was showery, and in the evening we encamped on the north bank, six miles up the river. Here we had leisure to reflect on our situation, and the nature of our engagements: and as we had all entered this service as volunteers, to consider how far we stood pledged for the success of an expedition which the government had projected; and which had been undertaken for the benefit and at the expence of the Union: of course of much interest and high expectation.

"The best authenticated accounts informed us that we were to pass through a country possessed by numerous, powerful, and warlike nations of savages, of gigantic stature, fierce, treacherous, and cruel; and particularly hostile to white men. And fame had united with tradition in opposing mountains to our course, which human enterprise and exertion would attempt in vain to pass. The determined and resolute character, however, of the corps, and the confidence which pervaded all ranks dispelled every emotion of fear and anxiety for the present; while a sense of duty, and of the honor which would attend the completion of the object of the expedition; a wish to gratify the expectations of the government, and of our fellow-citizens, with the feelings which novelty and discovery invariably inspire, seemed to insure to us ample support in our future toils, suffering, and danger."

Wednesday, May 11, 2011

Martha Graham

Title: [Portrait of Martha Graham and Bertram Ross, faces touching, in "Visionary recital"] Creator(s): Van Vechten, Carl, 1880-1964, photographer. Date Created/Published: 1961 June 27. Medium: 1 photographic print : gelatin silver. Reproduction Number: LC-USZ62-106859 (b&w film copy neg.)

Rights Advisory: For publication information see "Carl Van Vechten. Donor restrictions expired in 1986.

Publication and other forms of distribution: Per the instrument of gift, "for a period of 20 years from the date of this Instrument [1966], none of the photographs contained in said collection may be sold, reproduced, published or given away in any form whatsoever except with my [Saul Mauriber, Photographic Executor for Van Vechten] express permission in writing." This restriction expired in 1986.

Upon review of the relevant materials, the Library continues to believe that the photographs are in the public domain.

Photographs (Lots 12735 and 12736)"(http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/res/079_vanv.html) Call Number: LOT 12735, no. 456 [P&P] Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA.

Martha Graham and Bertram RossNotes: Title derived from information on verso of photographic print. Van Vechten number: XI SS 6. Also available on microfilm. Gift; Carl Van Vechten Estate; 1966. Forms part of: Portrait photographs of celebrities, a LOT which in turn forms part of the Carl Van Vechten photograph collection (Library of Congress).

Subjects: Graham, Martha. Ross, Bertram,--1920-

Format: Group portraits. Portrait photographs.

Collections: Van Vechten Collection

Part of: Van Vechten, Carl, 1880-1964. Portrait photographs of celebrities.

Sikorsky R-4B Hoverfly

DAYTON, Ohio - Sikorsky R-4B at the National Museum of the U.S. Air Force. (U.S. Air Force photo)

Developed by Igor Sikorsy from his famous VS-300 experimental helicopter, the R-4 became the world's first production helicopter, and the U.S. Army Air Force's first service helicopter. The prototype XR-4 made its initial flight on Jan. 13, 1942, and as a result of its successful flight tests, the USAAF ordered three YR-4As and 27 YR-4Bs for service testing and flight training. Of these, one went to Burma and one to Alaska, while several others were assigned to the U.S. Navy, U.S. Coast Guard and British Royal Navy. They showed such promise that the USAAF ordered 100 R-4Bs.

The R-4 was first used in combat in May 1944. In a letter to a friend, Col. Philip G. Cochran, commanding officer of the 1st Air Commando Group, wrote "Today the 'egg-beater' went into action and the damn thing acted like it had good sense."

The R-4B on display was donated to the museum by the University of Illinois in 1967.

TECHNICAL NOTES: Engine: Warner R-550 of 200 hp, Maximum speed: 75 mph, Cruising speed: 65 mph, Range: 130 miles, Ceiling: 8,000 ft. Rotor diameter: 38 ft. Length: 33 ft. 7 3/4 in. Height: 12 ft. 5 in. Weight: 2,581 lbs. loaded, Serial number: 43-46506.

Sikorsky R-4B HoverflyOverview: www.nationalmuseum.af.mil is provided as a public service by the National Museum of the United States Air Force, Public Affairs.

Information presented on www.nationalmuseum.af.mil is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credits is requested.

This file is a work of an Airman or employee of the United States Air Force, taken or made during the course of the person's official duties. As a work of the U.S. federal government, the image is in the public domain.

Generally speaking, works created by U.S. Government employees are not eligible for copyright protection in the United States. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office.

Tuesday, May 10, 2011

Glacier National Park



The Glacier National Park comprises an area of about 1,400 square miles in the northern Rocky Mountains, extending from the Great Northern Railway on the South to the Canadian line on the north and from the Great Plains on the east to Flathead River on the west.

Formerly this was a region visited by few except hunters in search of big game, and by prospectors eager to secure the stores of copper that were supposed to be contained in its mountain fastnesses. The dreams of mineral wealth, however, proved to be fallacious, and by act of Congress, May 11, 1910, it was created a national park in order to preserve for all time and for all generations its mountain beauties.

In general, the national parks so far created have been set aside and dedicated as playgrounds for the people, because they contain striking examples of nature's handiwork, such as the geysers and hot springs of the Yellowstone, the wonderful valleys, great granite walls, and cascades of the Yosemite, and the results of volcanic activity as exhibited in Crater Lake and the beautiful cone of Mount Rainier.

The Glacier National Park is no exception to this rule, for it contains some of the most rugged Alpine scenery to be found on the continent. Although the park was given its name on account of the many glaciers within its borders, these can hardly be considered its most striking feature. The traveler passing through it for the first time is generally impressed more by the ruggedness of the mountain tops, the great vertical walls which bound them, and the beauty of the forests, lakes, and streams, than by the glaciers, although the latter are numerous and probably the most easily accessible of any in the United States.

Glacier National Park

Glacier National Park

Glacier National Park
To the scientist the glaciers are of the greatest interest, for they are the remaining diminutive representatives of the great rivers of ice that formerly flowed out from these mountains, scouring and scoring the valleys and giving to the mountains their rugged and beautiful characters.

As the average traveler is always curious and interested in knowing how the features of the landscape have been produced, especially where there is such striking scenery as in the Glacier Park, it has seemed desirable to present a general sketch of the region, together with a description of some of the most important events in its history, so far as they have been determined, and of the processes by which the scenic features have been formed.

By this is meant not the recent history, since man became a factor in shaping and modifying the country, but the great history of this part of the globe reaching back into the dim and misty past that only the geologist is able to interpret. Consequently, the present paper will deal almost wholly with the causes that have been active in producing the surface forms and the various conditions which have modified and controlled the results.

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TEXT CREDIT: Origin of the Scenic Features of the Glacier National Park

Monday, May 09, 2011

First Transcontinental Railroad East and West The Champagne Photo

The most famous photograph associated with the first transcontinental railroad is Andrew J. Russell’s “East and West Shaking Hands at Laying of Last Rail.” Commonly known as “The Champagne Photo,” Russell’s “East and West” was one of many glassplate exposures taken on May 10, 1869, by three photographers who were present at the Golden Spike Ceremony. More than any other image of that day, however, the champagne photo seems to capture a defining moment in our nation’s history.

Following the driving of the last spike, Union Pacific engine No. 119 and Central Pacific’s Jupiter were run up until they nearly touched. Railroad officials retired to their cars, leaving the
engineers and workmen to celebrate.

The champagne flowed and engineers George Booth and Sam Bradford each broke a bottle upon the other’s locomotive. Samuel S. Montague, Central Pacific’s Chief Engineer and his counterpart in the Union Pacific, Grenville M. Dodge, shook hands to symbolize the end of the race to build the nation’s first transcontinental railroad. This moment in time became immortalized in Andrew J. Russell’s famous photograph.

Photographer Andrew J. Russell began his career as an artist. As a commissioned officer in the Civil War, he was assigned to special duty as photographer for the U.S. Military Railroad Construction Corps.

First Transcontinental Railroad East and West The Champagne Photo"East and West shaking hands at the laying of the last rail" of the Union Pacific Railroad, by American photographer Andrew J. Russell. Black and white photograph. 28.2 cm x 35.5 cm. Yale Collection of Western Americana, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.

This IMAGE (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case 1869) are now in the public domain.

This file is also in the public domain in countries that figure copyright from the date of death of the artist (post mortem auctoris) in this case Andrew Joseph Russell (1830-1902), and that most commonly runs for a period of 50 to 70 years from December 31st of that year.

TEXT CREDIT: Golden Spike National Historic Site (U.S. National Park Service)

Sunday, May 08, 2011

Anchors Aweigh Charles Adams Zimmermann

Words by CAPT Alfred H. Miles, USN Music by 2LT Charles A. Zimmermann, USMC.

2LT Charles Adams Zimmermann, USMC, a graduate of the Peabody Conservatory in Baltimore, had been selected as the bandmaster of the Naval Academy Band in 1887 at the age of 26. His father, Charles G. Zimmermann, had played in the band during the Civil War years. Early in his career, Bandmaster Zimmermann started the practice of composing a march for each graduating class. By 1892, "Zimmy", as he was affectionately known by the midshipmen, became so popular that he was presented with a gold medal by that year's class.

More gold medals followed as Zimmermann wrote a march for each succeeding class. Midshipman First Class Alfred Hart Miles, a member of the Class of 1907, approached Bandmaster Zimmermann with a request for a new march. Miles and his classmates "were eager to have a piece of music that would be inspiring, one with a swing to it so it could be used as a football marching song, and one that would live forever." Supposedly, with the two men seated at the Naval Academy Chapel organ, Zimmermann composed the tune and Miles set the title and wrote the two first stanzas. This march, "Anchor's Aweigh", was subsequently dedicated to the Academy Class of 1907.

Anchors Aweigh Charles Adams ZimmermannTo fill vacant officer billets in the fleet, the Class of 1907 graduated in three sections, with the first graduation held in February 1906. This placed the Class Supper in October 1905 and as was the tradition, it is possible that the Class March, “Anchors Aweigh” was performed that night. The first mention of a performance of “Anchors Aweigh” was at the Class of 1907 Farewell Ball on February 12, 1906. This march was played by the band and sung by the brigade at the 1906 Army-Navy football game, and for the first time since 1900, Navy won. Midshipman Royal Lovell, Class of 1926, wrote a third stanza. Later, George D. Lottman wrote the popular verses that were widely used until 1997 when the Master Chief of the Navy, John Hagen, slightly revised these verses to be more inclusive of all naval personnel.

No original manuscript of “Anchor's Aweigh” has been found. The oldest known manuscript is a full band arrangement by 1LT Adolf Torovsky, USMC dated 1926. It is currently held in the U.S. Naval Academy Archives.

This IMAGE (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired.This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case 1906) are now in the public domain.

TEXT CREDIT: US Naval Academy Band

Saturday, May 07, 2011

Happy Mother's Day

Many More Mother's Day Images - Mother's day: its history, origin, celebration, spirit, and significance as related in prose and verse Moffart, Yard & Company, 1915.

The arrival of this newcomer, Mothers' Day, in the calendar of our national festivals is significant. That a day so rich in sentiment, so tender in its meaning, should be officially adopted in a country which scoffs at sentiment and prides itself on its veneer of practicality is a hopeful sign. Like the divining rod of old usage it reveals underneath the crust of commercialism a perennial spring of idealism.

Although the formal designation of a specific day as Mothers' Day was but recently made in this country, we find in turning the pages of history that the idea rests, like so many of our customs, upon an ancient foundation. It strikes deep roots into universal truth and emotion. Mother-love antedates the Christian religion. Mother-worship, with its own rites and ceremonies, reaches back into pagan times.

Our earliest record of formal mother-worship is in the stories of the ceremonies by which Cybele, or Rhea, "The Great Mother of the Gods," was worshiped in Asia Minor. In her worship it was the power and majesty of motherhood rather than its tender maternal spirit that the wild dances and wilder music celebrated. Cybele was represented as traversing the mountains in a chariot drawn by lions. The lion, the oak and the pine were sacred to her.

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