January 10, 49 BC – Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon, signaling the start of civil war.
In 50 BC, the Senate, led by Pompey, ordered Caesar to disband his army and return to Rome because his term as governor had finished. Caesar thought he would be prosecuted if he entered Rome without the immunity enjoyed by a magistrate. Pompey accused Caesar of insubordination and treason. In January 49 BC, Caesar crossed the Rubicon river (the frontier boundary of Italy) with only one legion and ignited civil war. Upon crossing the Rubicon, Caesar, according to Plutarch and Suetonius, is supposed to have quoted the Athenian playwright Menander, in Greek, "the die is cast"
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History of Julius Caesar BY JACOB ABBOTT WITH ENGRAVINGS Harper & Brothers, 1876
Unedited image Julius Caesar Crossing the Rubicon