Friday, July 22, 2011

Guns N' Roses

"Sweet Child O' Mine" becomes a #1 hit for Guns N' Roses on July 23 in 1988.

Description English: Guns N' Roses performing 'Paradise City' live at the Copps Coliseum, Hamilton, ON during their canadian leg of the Chinese Democracy World Tour.

Date: 24 January 2010. Source: Own work. Author: Svdv22. Permission: (Reusing this file) See below.

I, the copyright holder of this work, release this work into the public domain. This applies worldwide. In some countries this may not be legally possible; if so: I grant anyone the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law.

Attribution: By Svdv22 (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.

Guns N' Roses

Wednesday, July 20, 2011

Gregor Mendel

Gregor Mendel. — Gregor Mendel (1822-1884), was an Austrian monk and abbott in the monastery of Briinn, where he conducted his experiments in the Cloister;

Garden. He loved plants and loved to experiment with them. Although he studied heredity only as a pastime, his laws of heredity and his experimental method of investigating them are two of the most important contributions ever made to biological science.

Mendel's success was due to the clearness with which he thought out the problem. He knew the works of other investigators of heredity, and attributed their failure to reach definite conclusions to a want of precise and continued analysis. To obtain definite results he saw that it was necessary to start with pure material, to consider each character separately, and to keep the different generations distinctly separate. He also realized that the progeny of each individual must be recorded separately. Such ideas were new in Mendel's time, but he felt certain that experiments carried on in this systematic way would give regular results and lead to definite conclusions.

Mendel saw that most could be accomplished by crossing plants of different varieties or species and observing the behavior of the hybrid offspring in successive generations. His plan was to cross plants differing in one or a few outstanding characters, such as the color of flowers, height of plant, color and shape of seeds, etc., and determine the laws governing the appearance of these characters in the hybrid offspring.

After working for about eight years, he presented his data, together with comments, to his former teacher, Karl Nageli, of the University of Vienna. Although a very noted worker in the field of biology, Niigcli did not seem to recognize the importance of his former student's experiments, and permitted them to sink into oblivion. The only publicity given to them was by Mendel himself, who presented the data, with interpretations, to the members of the Natural History Society of Briinn. The paper appeared in the 1865 proceedings of this society (Verliandlnngcn naturf. Vcrein in Briinn. Abhandl. IV, 1865), under the title of "Experiments in Plant Hybridization."

Title: The laws of life: principles of evolution, heredity and eugenics. A popular presentation. Author: William Marion Goldsmith. Publisher: R.G. Badger, 1922. Original from: the University of Michigan. Digitized: Jan 17, 2009. Length: 441 pages. Subjects: Biology. Eugenics Evolution Heredity.

This IMAGE (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case 1922) are now in the public domain.

Tuesday, July 19, 2011

Falling Skies Prequel Web Comic

Conquest of Mars Space Ship and Moon

And it was true. I had myself been one of the occupants of the car of the flying Ship of Space on that night when it silently left the earth, and rising out of the great shadow of the globe, sped on to the moon. We had landed upon the scarred and desolate face of the earth's satellite, and but that there are greater and more interesting events, the telling of which must not be delayed, I should undertake to describe the particulars of this first visit of men to another world.

But, as I have already intimated, this was only an experimental trip. By visiting this little nearby island in the ocean of space, Mr. Edison simply wished to demonstrate the practicability of his invention, and to convince, first of all, himself and his scientific friends that it was possible for men—mortal men—to quit and to revisit the earth at their will. That aim this experimental trip triumphantly attained.

This IMAGE (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case 1898) are now in the public domain.

Conquest of Mars Space Ship and Moon

IMAGE by: G. Y. Kauffman TEXT RESOURCES:

Monday, July 18, 2011

SS Great Britain

July 19, 1843 – The SS Great Britain is launched, becoming the first ocean-going craft with an iron hull and screw propeller also becoming the world's largest ship.

This work is in the public domain in the United States, and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or fewer. In this case William Henry Fox Talbot (1800–1877)

William Henry Fox Talbot [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

William Henry Fox Talbot (1800–1877) British photographer. Date of birth / death: 11 November 1800 - 17 September 1877. Location of birth / death: Melbury, Dorset, England - Lacock Abbey, Wiltshire, England

Fitting out in the Cumberland Basin, SS Great Britain shortly after her launch April 1844. This historic photograph by William Fox Talbot is believed to be the first ever taken of a ship.(the negative of this photograph is held by the National Maritime Museum)

The passenger steamship SS Great Britain was designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel for the Great Western Steamship Company's service between Bristol and New York. Previous ships had been built of iron or equipped with screw propeller but Great Britain was the first to combine these features in a large ocean going ship. when she crossed the Atlantic in 1845 in the then-record time of 14 days (one day faster than the previous record holder, the SS Great Western) she was the first screw steamer to do so.

SS Great Britain

TEXT RESOURCE: SS Great Britain From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sunday, July 17, 2011

Conquest of Mars Frontpiece

A Trip to the Moon. And it was true. I had myself been one of the occupants of the car of the flying Ship of Space on that night when it silently left the earth, and rising out of the great shadow of the globe, sped on to the moon. We had landed upon the scarred and desolate face of the earth's satellite, and but that there are greater and more interesting events, the telling of which must not be delayed, I should undertake to describe the particulars of this first visit of men to another world.

But, as I have already intimated, this was only an experimental trip. By visiting this little nearby island in the ocean of space, Mr. Edison simply wished to demonstrate the practicability of his invention, and to convince, first of all, himself and his scientific friends that it was possible for men—mortal men—to quit and to revisit the earth at their will. That aim this experimental trip triumphantly attained.

It would carry me into technical details that would hardly interest the reader to describe the mechanism of Mr. Edison's flying machine. Let it suffice to say that it depended upon the principal of electrical attraction and repulsion. By means of a most ingenious and complicated construction he had mastered the problem of how to produce, in a limited space, electricity of any desired potential and of any polarity, and that without danger to the experimenter or to the material experimented upon. It is gravitation, as everybody knows, that makes man a prisoner on the earth.


This IMAGE (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case 1898) are now in the public domain.

IMAGE by: G. Y. Kauffman

TEXT RESOURCES:

Conquest of Mars The flying machine

Now, rumor declared that Mr. Edison had invented and perfected a flying machine much more complete and manageable than those of the Martians had been. Wonderful stories quickly found their way into the newspapers concerning what Mr. Edison had already accomplished with the aid of his model electrical balloon. His laboratory was carefully guarded against the invasion of the curious, because he rightly felt that a premature announcement, which should promise more than could be actually fulfilled, would, at this critical juncture, plunge mankind back again into the gulf of despair, out of which it had just begun to emerge.

Nevertheless, inklings of the truth leaked out. The flying machine had been seen by many persons hovering by night high above the Orange hills and disappearing in the faint starlight as if it had gone away into the depths of space, out of which it would re-emerge before the morning light had streaked the east, and be seen settling down again within the walls that surrounded the laboratory of the great inventor. At length the rumor, gradually deepening into a conviction, spread that Edison himself, accompanied by a few scientific friends, had made an experimental trip to the moon. At a time when the spirit of mankind was less profoundly stirred, such a story would have been received with complete incredulity, but now, rising on the wings of the new hope that was buoying up the earth, this extraordinary rumor became a day star of truth to the nations.

Conquest of Mars Space Ship

This IMAGE (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case 1898) are now in the public domain.

IMAGE by: G. Y. Kauffman

TEXT RESOURCES:

Saturday, July 16, 2011

Clouds in Colors

Clouds are classified into twelve types. The names used for the clouds are based on three factors: the altitude at which the cloud occurs, the shape of the cloud, and whether the cloud is producing precipitation.

There are three altitude ranges, or cloud levels. The height of the cloud base determines a cloud’s level. Clouds with a base below 2,000 meters are considered low-level clouds. Clouds with a base between 2,000 and 6,000 meters are mid-level clouds. Those with a base above 6,000 meters are considered high-level clouds.

In 1803, Luke Howard classified four main cloud types with Latin terms. Cumulus means “pile” and describes heaped, lumpy clouds. Cirrus means “curl of hair” and is used to name clouds that look like wispy locks of hair. Featureless clouds that form sheets are named stratus, meaning “layer.” Howard used the term nimbus, which means “cloud,” to name low, gray rain clouds.

A good way to determine the level of cumulus clouds is to assess the size of the individual cloud elements. Low-level cumulus clouds are about the same size, or larger than, your fist held at arms’ length. One exception to this rule is when a small cumulus cloud is developing or evaporating. In that case, its direction or speed of motion may indicate that it is in the same layer as nearby larger cumulus clouds. Mid-level cumulus clouds are farther away and the individual cloud pieces appear substantially smaller, about the size of your thumb at arms’ length. High-level cumulus clouds are smaller still, with individual cloud pieces about the size of the nail on your little finger at arms’ length.

Stratus clouds have no distinct cloud pieces to measure. For these clouds, a general rule is that cloud opacity tends to decrease with height. Thus, low-level clouds are generally thicker than mid-level clouds, and a high-level cirrostratus is very thin. Thus, by observing how much the cloud obscures the Sun, you can estimate the level of a stratus cloud.

If there is precipitation, the chances are very good that you are dealing with a low-level cloud. Mid-level clouds occasionally precipitate, but this is a rare occurrence.

Clouds in Colors

I, (sookietex) the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. This applies worldwide. In case this is not legally possible, I grant any entity the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law.

If This image is subject to copyright in your jurisdiction, i (sookietex) the copyright holder have irrevocably released all rights to it, allowing it to be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, used, modified, built upon, or otherwise exploited in any way by anyone for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial, with or without attribution of the author, as if in the public domain.

TEXT CREDIT: NASA Langley Science Directorate

Friday, July 15, 2011

Trinity, the first nuclear weapons test of an atomic bomb

TRINITY PHOTOGRAPH - Alamogordo, NM - Trinity Test, July 16, 1945 - Trinity was the code name of the first nuclear weapons test of an atomic bomb detonated atop a at the Trinity Site in Southern New Mexico on July 16, 1945. This test was conducted by the United States Army.

0800001 Trinity - 1945 - Trinity Shot was part of the secret Manhattan Project - the atomic bomb project charged with designing, developing, testing, and firing a weaponization of the newly discovered phenomenon, fission, the splitting of nuclei of heavy particles to release energy. Nicknamed "Gadget," the device was exploded at the Trinity Site in southeastern New Mexico, near Alamogordo as the first proof test of the concept of implosion. This involved taking a critical mass of plutonium and using detonators to set off high explosives to cause the mass of radioactive material to squeeze in upon itself until it reached a super critical mass. This implosion, then, resulted in the splitting of the nuclei in the plutonium atoms, which produced heat, blast, and radiation.

U.S. Department of Energy. National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. P.O. Box 98518. Las Vegas, NV 89193-8518. Phone: 702-295-3521/

Trinity, the first nuclear weapons test of an atomic bombPages on the NNSA Nevada Site Office website -- are provided as a public service by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Site Office. Information presented on these pages are considered public information and may be distributed or copied. (Use of appropriate byline/citations/photo/credits is requested.)

Should these photos be used in any manner that requires a credit line, the wording should read: "Photo courtesy of National Nuclear Security Administration / Nevada Site Office".

This image or file is a work of an employee of the United States Federal Government, taken or made during the course of the person's official duties. As a work of the U.S. federal government, the image or file is in the public domain.

Generally speaking, works created by U.S. Government employees are not eligible for copyright protection in the United States. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office.

TEXT RESOURCE: U.S. DOE/NNSA

Thursday, July 14, 2011

Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn Self Portrait 1660

Artist: Rembrandt (1606–1669) Link back to Creator infobox template. Title: Self-portrait. Alternate title(s): Zelfportret met baret. Portret van Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669).

Date: 1660. Medium: Oil on canvas. Dimensions: 80.3 × 67.3 cm (31.6 × 26.5 in) Current location. Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York. Accession number: 14.40.618

Notes: Signed and dated bottom right: Rembrandt // f. 1660 Provenance: Unknown date: Duc de Valentinois, Paris between 15 July 1802 and 17 July 1802: anonymous sale at Lebrun, Paris (auction house) by 1825: William Waldegrave, 1st Baron Radstock (1753-1825)
13 May 1826: purchased by Alexander Baring, 1st Baron Ashburton (1774-1848), at the sale of the collection of William Waldegrave, 1st Baron Radstock at Christie’s, London 1848: inherited by Bingham Baring, 2nd Baron Ashburton (1799-1864), from Alexander Baring, 1st Baron Ashburton 1864: inherited by Francis Baring, 3rd Baron Ashburton (1800-1868), from Bingham Baring, 2nd Baron Ashburton 1868: inherited by Alexander Baring, 4th Baron Ashburton (1835-1889), from Francis Baring, 3rd Baron Ashburton 1889: inherited by Francis Denzil Edward, 5th Baron Ashburton, from Alexander Baring, 4th Baron Ashburton by 1908: Arthur J. Sulley & Co. (art dealers), London 1909/1910: obtained by Charles Sedelmeyer (art dealer), Paris 1909/1910: purchased by Benjamin Altman (1840-1913), New York, from Charles Sedelmeyer, Paris 1913: bequeathed to Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, by Benjamin Altman, New York.

Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn Self Portrait 1660From Long Island University: With his curly grey hair, large black cap and the white shirt edge at his neck peeking out from under a red waistcoat, the 54 year old Rembrandt appears like a kindly, older man. His humble appearance in everyday clothes forms a stark contrast with his almost regal bearing and outfit in the self-portrait of 1658 now hanging in The Frick Collection in New York. Although tempting to read the difference as reflecting Rembrandt’s changing emotional and financial states during this difficult personal period following his bankruptcy and removal from his large house on the St. Antoniebreestraat, there are no written accounts to confirm or deny this. More likely, Rembrandt was experimenting with the depiction of various facial expressions, costumes, and bodily postures, using himself as a readily available model. One intriguing aspect of many of Rembrandt’s later self-portraits is that the mood they convey seems to vary slightly when the viewer moves from one side to the other. This happens as a result of Rembrandt’s heavy use of impasto, or thickly layered paint, which tends to catch light at different angles according to the position from which the painting is viewed.

Prior to Rembrandt’s time, self-portraits were much less common. The ability of artists to paint self-portraits had only recently become easier with the increasing availability of affordable mirrors. Rembrandt no doubt was fascinated with this technology, which allowed him to solve certain artistic problems. In addition, there was an increasing demand for portraits of artists by the growing community of art buyers. In fact, none of Rembrandt’s self-portraits appear in the inventory of his goods made in the 1650s, indicating they had all been sold. Rembrandt’s example spurred others to paint self-portraits, which ultimately served as advertisements for the artists, contributing to their fame and fortune.

This image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF. Works published before 1923, in this case c1660, are now in the public domain.

These images are also in the public domain in countries that figure copyright from the date of death of the artist (post mortem auctoris) in this case Rembrandt (1606–1669) and that most commonly runs for a period of 50 to 70 years from the last day of that year.

Rembrandt [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

TEXT RESOURCES:

Wednesday, July 13, 2011

Billy the Kid William aka Henry McCarty, Henry Antrim and William H. Bonney

Billy the Kid, also known as William Henry McCarty, Henry Antrim and William H. Bonney.

Sheriff Pat Garrett offered that he responded to rumors that McCarty was lurking in the vicinity of Fort Sumner. Garrett and two deputies set out on July 14, 1881, to question one of the town's residents, a friend of McCarty's named Pete Maxwell (son of land baron Lucien Maxwell). Close to midnight, as Garrett and Maxwell sat talking in Maxwell's darkened bedroom, McCarty unexpectedly entered the room.

There are at least two versions of what happened next. One version suggests that as the Kid entered, he failed to recognize Garrett in the poor light. McCarty drew his pistol and backed away, asking "¿Quién es? ¿Quién es?". Recognizing McCarty's voice, Garrett drew his own pistol and fired twice, the first bullet striking McCarty in the chest just above his heart, killing him.

Billy the Kid (1860 – 1881). Image mirrored on vertical axis to correct widely-seen flopped tintype. Cartridge loading gate on Winchester Model 1873 lever action rifle is on the right side of the receiver. The only surviving authenticated portrait of Billy the Kid. This tintype portrait sold at auction in June 2011 for USD $2,300,000 to William Koch.

This is a retouched picture, which means that it has been digitally altered from its original version. The original can be viewed here: Billy the Kid tintype, Fort Sumner, 1879-80.jpg. Author: unattributed, possibly a traveling photographer who came through Fort Sumner in 1880. Source: Brian Lebel's Old West Show and Auction. Modifications made by Hydrargyrum.

Billy the Kid William aka Henry McCarty, Henry Antrim and William H. BonneyThis image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF. Works published before 1923, in this case 1879-80, are now in the public domain.

These images are also in the public domain in countries that figure copyright from the date of death of the artist (post mortem auctoris) and that most commonly runs for a period of 50 to 70 years from the last day of that year.

Attribution: By derivative work: Quicksilver@ Billykid.jpg: Ben Wittick (1845-1903) (Billykid.jpg) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.

TEXT RESOURCE: Billy the Kid From Wikipedia

Tuesday, July 12, 2011

Geoffrey Chaucer

On 12 July 1389, Chaucer was appointed the clerk of the king's works, to Richard II.

In October 1386, in a law-suit between two noblemen over a coat of arms, one of the witnesses was described in the curious French of English law-courts as " Geffray Chaucere, Esquier, del age de xl. ans et plus, armeez par xxvii. ans." This is the most positive information we possess as to the date of the poet's birth, and doubt may even be expressed as to its reliability, because the ages of the other witnesses were set down most inaccurately in the document. On the face of it, however, his recent biographers, after checking this indication by the known facts of his life, are agreed to fix the date of his birth about the year 1340, rather earlier than later. This places him in the generation of Froissart and Eustache Deschamps, and makes him a contemporary of Charles V., King of France, of the children of Edward III., King of England, and in particular of that John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, his patron, the dates of whose birth and death thus correspond with his very nearly.

He was probably born in London, in Thames Street, a road which is parallel to the river and where his father owned a house and tavern. Nothing of any special account is known about his ancestors. The name, however, tells us much. Chaucer is the French "chaussier," which means shoemaker or rather hosier. This nickname used as a surname reveals in all probability a French origin on the father's side.

Moreover, the Christian name of the poet's grandfather was Robert, and'the name of Geoffrey given to the poet had been introduced and popularised in England by the Angevin dynasty with which it frequently occurs.

Geoffrey ChaucerTitle: Geoffrey Chaucer. Author: Émile Legouis. Translated by Louis Lailavoix. Publisher: J.M. Dent & Sons ltd., 1913. Original from Princeton University. Digitized: Dec 5, 2008. Length: 220 pages. Subjects" Poets, English.

This image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF. Works published before 1923, in this case 1913, are now in the public domain.

The Chaucers, however, were hosiers no longer in the fourteenth century. For two generations at least they had belonged to the guild of " vintners " in the city. In 1310 Geoffrey's grandfather, Robert, had been made a collector for the port of London of the newly established customs on wine agreed to by the merchants of Aquitaine. As to his father, John, he seems to have been a prosperous vintner with friends at court. On the 12th of June 1338, "before crossing the sea in the retinue of Edward III., who was going on an expedition to Flanders, he obtained some letters of protection rendering his property exempt from all suits in his absence. In 1348 he was appointed deputy to the king's butler in the port of Southampton. He died in 1366. We know that his wife's name was Agnes, and that she was related to a certain Hamo de Compton. She displayed as much haste as the Wife of Bath, and married again soon after her husband's death. But it is not certain that John Chaucer was only married once, nor that this Agnes was the poet's mother.

TEXT CREDIT: Geoffrey Chaucer By Émile Legouis.

Saturday, July 09, 2011

Big Yellow Forklift

Forklift help keep industry moving!!! Used improperly, forklifts can be dangerous. Accidents can cost companies time and money, and result in serious injuries to workers. Forklift safety depends on you.

To prevent Forklift accidents, you’ll need to: Know your equipment and how to use it. Learn safety rules - - follow them! Stay alert at all times. Guard other people’s safety, as well as your own. Forklifts should work for you - - not against you.

Follow these 4 safety steps before operating a forklift: Get proper authorization. Only fully trained, authorized drivers are legally allowed to operate forklifts. Many plants require that operators have a driver’s license, badge, etc.

Choose the right lift for the job. The location, hazards and load
requirements determine which model should be used. Be sure load rating, fittings, accessories (such as lights and backrest extensions) and type of truck are right for the job. Wear proper protective gear. The job may require that you wear a protective helmet, goggles, gloves, safety shoes, earmuffs or plugs, breathing protection, etc.

Read the operator’s manual. Make sure you’re completely familiar with the equipment and operating instructions.

Big Yellow Forklift

Big Yellow Forklift
CHECK EQUIPMENT EVERY DAY. If the forklift is used round the clock, it should be examined after each shift.

A forklift should be immediately removed from service if it breaks down or is in any way unsafe. Report problems to your supervisor. Handle heavy loads properly. Don’t overload the forklift’s load capacity. Distribute the load capacity. Distribute the load evenly. While moving, keep the forks low, with mast tilted back. Keep the load uphill when driving up or down on a slope, even if you have to back downhill.

I, (sookietex) the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. This applies worldwide. In case this is not legally possible, I grant any entity the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law.

If This image is subject to copyright in your jurisdiction, i (sookietex) the copyright holder have irrevocably released all rights to it, allowing it to be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, used, modified, built upon, or otherwise exploited in any way by anyone for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial, with or without attribution of the author, as if in the public domain.

TEXT CREDIT: CNIC Headquarters:

Thursday, July 07, 2011

The Liberty Bell

On July 8, 1776 the Liberty Bell rang to mark the reading of the Declaration of Independence.

The Liberty Bell inscription: Proclaim LIBERTY throughout all the Land unto all the Inhabitants thereof Lev. XXV X By Order of the ASSEMBLY of the Province of PENSYLVANIA [sic] for the State House in Philada.

Pass and Stow Philada MDCCLIII (1753)

A bell for the Pennsylvania State House was cast in London, England, however, it cracked soon after it arrived in Philadelphia. Local craftsmen John Pass and John Stow cast a new bell in 1753, using metal from the English bell. Their names appear on the front of the bell, along with the city and the date. By 1846 a thin crack began to affect the sound of the bell. The bell was repaired in 1846 and rang for a George Washington birthday celebration, but the bell cracked again and has not been rung since. No one knows why the bell cracked either time.

The bell weighs about 2000 pounds. It is made of 70% copper, 25% tin, and small amounts of lead, zinc, arsenic, gold, and silver. It hangs from what is believed to be its original yoke, made from American elm, also known as slippery elm.

The old State House bell was first called the "Liberty Bell" by a group trying to outlaw slavery. These abolitionists remembered the words on the bell and, in the 1830s, adopted it as a symbol of their cause.

The Liberty BellBeginning in the late 1800s, the Liberty Bell traveled around the country to expositions and fairs to help heal the divisions of the Civil War. It reminded Americans of their earlier days when they fought and worked together for independence.

In 1915, the bell made its last trip and came home to Philadelphia, where it now silently reminds us of the power of liberty. For more than 200 years people from around the world have felt the bell's message. No one can see liberty, but people have used the Liberty Bell to represent this important idea.

Ownership: Information created or owned by the NPS and presented on this website, unless otherwise indicated, is considered in the public domain. It may be distributed or copied as permitted by applicable law.

This image or file is a work of an employee of the United States Federal Government, taken or made during the course of the person's official duties. As a work of the U.S. federal government, the image or file is in the public domain.

Generally speaking, works created by U.S. Government employees are not eligible for copyright protection in the United States. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office.

TEXT CREDIT: Independence National Historical Park (U.S. National Park Service)

Monday, July 04, 2011

United States Declaration of Independence Dunlap Broadside



The Dunlap broadside was the first published version of the Declaration.

This image is a digital version of the "Dunlap Broadside" copy of the Declaration of Independence held at the Yale University Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library. This image is available to download directly from the Yale University Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library website at beinecke.library.yale.edu/ by searching for "Dunlap broadside."

Author Original printing by John Dunlap (1747-1812)

This image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF. Works published before 1923, in this case 1776, are now in the public domain.

These images are also in the public domain in countries that figure copyright from the date of death of the artist (post mortem auctoris), in this case John Dunlap (1747-1812), and that most commonly runs for a period of 50 to 70 years from the last day of that year.

By Original printing by John Dunlap (1747-1812) uploader was Mkimberl at en.wikipedia (from en.wikipedia; description page is/was here.) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

United States Declaration of Independence Dunlap Broadside

Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America

San Francisco, California. Flag of allegiance pledge at Raphael Weill Public School, Geary and Buch . . ., 04/20/1942. ARC Identifier 537476 / Local Identifier 210-G-C122. Item from Record Group 210: Records of the War Relocation Authority, 1941 - 1989.

Creator(s): Department of the Interior. War Relocation Authority. (02/16/1944 - 06/30/1946) Type(s) of Archival Materials: Photographs and other Graphic Materials.

Contact(s): Still Picture Records Section, Special Media Archives Services Division (NWCS-S), National Archives at College Park, 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD, 20740-6001. PHONE: 301-837-0561; FAX: 301-837-3621; EMAIL: stillpixorder@nara.gov.

Production Date(s): 04/20/1942. Part Of: Series: Central Photographic File of the War Relocation Authority, compiled 1942 - 1945.

Access Restriction(s): Unrestricted. Use Restriction(s): Unrestricted.

This image or file is a work of an employee of the United States Federal Government, taken or made during the course of the person's official duties. As a work of the U.S. federal government, the image or file is in the public domain.

Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag of the United States of AmericaGenerally speaking, works created by U.S. Government employees are not eligible for copyright protection in the United States. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office.

Variant Control Number(s): NAIL Control Number: NWDNS-210-G-C122. Index Terms: Contributors to Authorship and/or Production of the Archival Materials: Lange, Dorothea, 1895-1965, Photographer.

Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag of the United States of AmericaTitle: [Pledge of allegiance to the flag, 8th Division] Creator(s): Johnston, Frances Benjamin, 1864-1952, photographer. Date Created / Published: [1899?] Medium: 1 photographic print : cyanotype. Reproduction Number: LC-USZ62-14693 (b&w film copy neg.)

Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on reproduction.

This image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF. Works published before 1923, in this case c1899, are now in the public domain.

Call Number: LOT 2749 no. 366 [item] [P&P] Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

Notes: Title and other information transcribed from caption card. Frances Benjamin Johnston Collection (Library of Congress). In album: "8th Division."

Subjects: Education--Washington (D.C.)--1890-1900. Format: Cyanotypes--1890-1900. Collections: Johnston (Frances Benjamin) Collection. Part of: Johnston, Frances Benjamin,1864-1952. Washington, D.C., school survey.

SECOND GRADERS PLEDGE ALLEGIANCE IN ROCKPORT ELEMENTARY SCHOOL,SECOND GRADERS PLEDGE ALLEGIANCE IN ROCKPORT ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, 02/1973 ARC Identifier 548243 / Local Identifier 412-DA-5756. Item from Record Group 412: Records of the Environmental Protection Agency, 1944 - 2006.

Creator(s): Environmental Protection Agency. (12/02/1970 - ) Type(s) of Archival Materials: Photographs and other Graphic Materials

Contact(s): Still Picture Records Section, Special Media Archives Services Division (NWCS-S), National Archives at College Park, 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD, 20740-6001. PHONE: 301-837-0561; FAX: 301-837-3621; EMAIL: stillpixorder@nara.gov.

Production Date(s): 02/1973. Part Of: Series: DOCUMERICA: The Environmental Protection Agency's Program to Photographically Document Subjects of Environmental Concern, compiled 1972 - 1977.

Access Restriction(s): Unrestricted. Use Restriction(s): Unrestricted.

This image or file is a work of an employee of the United States Federal Government, taken or made during the course of the person's official duties. As a work of the U.S. federal government, the image or file is in the public domain.

This image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF. Works published before 1923, in this case c1899, are now in the public domain.

Variant Control Number(s): Agency-Assigned Identifier: 096/56/005756. NAIL Control Number: NWDNS-412-DA-5756

Index Terms: Subjects Represented in the Archival Material: Environmental protection, Natural resources, Pollution. Gloucester (Essex, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America) inhabited place.

Contributors to Authorship and/or Production of the Archival Materials: Parks, Deborah, Photographer

Sunday, July 03, 2011

Child Watching July 4th Fireworks

Overview: AF.mil is provided as a public service by the Office of the Secretary of Air Force (Public Affairs).

Information presented on AF.mil is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline / photo / image credits is requested (U.S. Air Force photo/Mike Litteken)

This media file is a work of a U.S. Department of Defense employee, made during the course of the person's official duties. As a work of the U.S. federal government, the media file is in the public domain.

Generally speaking, works created by U.S. Government employees are not eligible for copyright protection in the United States. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office.

Independence Day is a major holiday in the United States and overseas at American facilities. This year, Air Force leaders urge members and their families to practice safe use of fireworks in an effort to prevent any mishaps.

Child Watching July 4th FireworksAccording to an American Pyrotechnics Association fact sheet, consumption of fireworks in the United States has risen dramatically from 29 million pounds to more than 265.5 million pounds over the past three decades.

While the use of fireworks has increased by almost 920%, injuries per 100,000 pounds of fireworks have decreased more than 90%.

Officials with the National Council on Fireworks Safety urge consumers to be fireworks smart, before, during and after their consumer fireworks display.

Before: Choose an open area away from spectators, homes and buildings and dry vegetation. Use a garden hose to wet down the area before firing.

During: As each device burns out, soak it using a hose, or bucket of water.

After: Place all used items in a covered, fireproof container and leave it outside and away from homes and buildings.

Treat all fireworks with respect, read all the cautions and warnings and use common sense. Lighting fireworks indoors, throwing them from automobiles and lighting multiple devices at the same time can lead to accidents and are not how fireworks are intended to be used. Always obey all local laws pertaining to the use of fireworks.

Practicing these tips will keep you and your friends and family safe this Fourth of July weekend.

TEXT CREDIT: The Official Web site of the United States Air Force by Airman 1st Class Lynsie Nichols 374th Airlift Wing Public Affairs

Saturday, July 02, 2011

The Spirit of '76 Yankee Doodle, 1776

Archibald Willard, 1836-1918, was an Ohio artist who created a partnership with the publisher and photographer, James F. Ryder, before the Civil War. After his service, he continued his partnership with Ryder who successfully sold many of the sketches Willard had done during the war.

His most famous painting was originally painted as a 8 x 10 mural and he named it "Yankee Doodle." It was painted for the first Centennial Exposition held in Philadelphia. His mural was started in 1875 in an upstairs bedroom in his home. It was soon decided that a move to a professional studio would be appropriate and he moved to Cleveland and took up residence in the studio of Willis Adams. As a result of the move, Willard's father Samuel, became the model for the old drummer.

After the mural was shown several times, it was suggested that he change the name from "Yankee Doodle" to avoid the association with its origins as a British song used to poke fun at the Americans. The suggestion was "The Spirit of '76" and Willard reluctantly agreed. Historically, the Yankee Doodle tune was created by the British but it was quickly adopted by the Americans as theirs and it quickly became an expression of American patriotism. Willard painted several smaller versions of what had became known as "The Spirit of '76."

The Spirit of '76 Yankee Doodle, 1776Title: Yankee doodle 1776 / A.M. Willard. Creator(s): Willard, Archibald M., 1836-1918, artist. Related Names: Ryder, James F., 1826-1904 , publisher. Date Created/Published: Cleveland, Ohio : Pub. by J.F. Ryder, c1876. Medium: 1 print : chromolithograph.

Summary: Print shows three patriots, two playing drums and one playing a fife, leading troops into battle. Based on the painting called the "Spirit of '76."

Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-pga-03609 (digital file from original print) LC-DIG-ppmsca-05936 (digital file from original print) LC-USZC4-694 (color film copy transparency) LC-USZ62-5330 (b&w film copy neg.)

Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication.

This image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF. Works published before 1923, in this case c1876, are now in the public domain.

These images are also in the public domain in countries that figure copyright from the date of death of the artist (post mortem auctoris), in this case Archibald Willard, 1836-1918, and that most commonly runs for a period of 50 to 70 years from the last day of that year.

Call Number: PGA - Clay, Cosack & Co.--Yankee doodle 1776 (C size) [P&P] Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA.

Notes: 3383G U.S. Copyright Office. Title from item. Entered according to act of Congress by J.F. Ryder in the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington, D.C. in the year 18[76]. Exhibited: "Moving Pictures : The Un-easy Relationship between American Art and Early Film" at the Williams College of Art, MA, and other venues, 2005-2007.

Subjects: Patriotism--1870-1880. United States--History--Revolution, 1775-1783--Commemoration. Format: Chromolithographs--Color--1870-1880. Collections: Popular Graphic Arts

TEXT CREDIT: The Library of Congress