Friday, September 30, 2011

The First Thanksgiving Day

Long ago there were some people in England who were very unhappy because the king would not allow them to worship God in their own way. Some of these people went to Holland, where they lived for several years, but when their little boys and girls began to talk Dutch instead of English they decided to go to America.

They went back to England, got permission from King James to settle in America, and then set sail in the Mayflower. After a rough voyage, lasting over nine weeks, they finally landed at what is now called Plymouth.

Immediately upon landing, the men and the boys began to cut down trees and clear the forests. They built a large fort in which all lived together until the houses were ready for use.

The Pilgrims, as these people were called, had a hard struggle during their first winter. It was bitterly cold, and food was so scarce that many became sick and died.

At first the Pilgrims lived in constant fear of the Indians. But in March an Indian named Squanto came to the Pilgrims and said that his people wished to be their friends. Later he brought the chief Massasoit, who made a treaty and smoked the peace pipe with them. Squanto remained with the Pilgrims and taught them the best way to fish and hunt and how to plant Indian corn.

Everything grew so well during the first summer that when autumn came the Pilgrims had plenty of food for the coming winter. They felt so grateful that they set aside a day on which to give thanks for their great harvest, and as they wished the Indians to share in their rejoicing, Squanto was sent to invite Massasoit and his braves. Everyone helped in the preparation for the feast. The men brought home deer and turkeys from the hunt, the boys brought fish and clams, and the women and girls were busy cooking.

On Thanksgiving Day the Indians came at sunrise. After breakfast the Pilgrims went to church, and when the sermon was over, all were ready for the feast. The afternoon was spent in games. The celebration, which lasted for three days, ended with a great dinner.

Since that time we have always had a Thanksgiving Day.

The First Thanksgiving Day

This Image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1923 are copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case 1917) are now in the public domain.

TEXT CREDIT: Title: Good English, oral and written, Book 1. Good English, Oral and Written, William Harris Elson. Authors: William Harris Elson, Lura E. Runkel, Clara E. Lynch. Publisher: Scott, Foresman and Co., 1917. Original from: Harvard University. Digitized: Apr 6, 2007
Subjects, Readers

Jack O' Lantern and the Moon

Jack O' Lantern and the Moon

Have you ever seen a cornfield with the brown cornstalks and the yellow pumpkins lying on the ground between them? This is usually late in October. What day do we celebrate at the end of October? Have you ever seen a jack-o-lantern made by scooping out the inside of a pumpkin, cutting holes for eyes, nose and mouth, and putting a candle inside? Perhaps you have made one.

The man in the moon looked down on the field

Where the golden pumpkin lay, He winked at him and he blinked at him

In the funniest kind of a way.

The pumpkin was yellow and fat and round

And as funny as he could be, But strange was his case for he had no face

So he couldn't smile back, you see.

But on All Hallowe'en, when the moon looked down From the sky, through the shadows dim,

The pumpkin fat on a gate-post sat, And saucily laughed at him.

—Anna C. Ayer. Courtesy of "The Youth's Companion".

Jack O' Lantern and the Moon

This Image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1923 are copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case 1920) are now in the public domain.

TEXT CREDIT: The silent readers The Silent Readers, William Dodge Lewis. Authors: William Dodge Lewis, Albert Lindsay Rowland. Publisher: J.C. Winston, 1920. Original from: Harvard University. Digitized: Apr 5, 2007. Subjects: Readers.

Wednesday, September 28, 2011

Shofar. Sabbath horn. Yemenite Jew

Title: Shofar. Sabbath horn. Yemenite Jew Creator(s): American Colony (Jerusalem). Photo Dept., photographer Date Created / Published: [between 1934 and 1939] Medium: 1 negative : nitrate ; 4 x 5 in. Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-matpc-16612 (digital file from original photo)

Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication. Photographs in the G. Eric and Edith Matson Photograph Collection are in the public domain.

Publication and other forms of distribution: Permitted, but with donor restrictions on the use of lantern slides. The Kensington Episcopal Home conveyed the collection to the Library in 1978. In 2003, the Home dedicated the intellectual property and related rights to the collection to the American public,

Call Number: LC-M33- 7136 [P&P] Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

Notes: Title and date from: photographer's logbook: Matson Registers, v. 1, [1934-1939]. Gift; Episcopal Home; 1978. Format: Nitrate negatives.

Collections: Matson (G. Eric and Edith) Photograph Collection. Part of: G. Eric and Edith Matson Photograph Collectio.

Monday, September 26, 2011

Jack O'Lanterns

Jack o' lanterns are the spirits of unrighteous men ', which by a false glimmer seek to mislead the traveller, and to decoy him into bogs and moors. The best safeguard against them, when they appear, is to turn one's cap inside out. When any one sees a Jack o' lantern, let him take care not to point at him, for he will come if pointed at. It is also said that if any one calls him, he will come and light him who called; but then let him be very cautious.

Jack O'Lanterns, carved and photographed by image uploader, circa Halloween 2009.

I Lost Number, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. This applies worldwide.

In case this is not legally possible, I grant any entity the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law.

TEXT CREDIT: Northern mythology, comprising the principal popular traditions and superstitions of Scandinavia, north Germany, and the Netherlands Compiled by: Benjamin Thorpe. Publisher: E. Lumley, 1851. Original from: the University of Virginia. Digitized: Jun 25, 2008. Subjects: Mythology, Germanic.

Jack O'Lanterns

Sunday, September 25, 2011

Witch on Her Broomstick



Witch on Her Broomstick, It is wild weather overhead. All day the wind has been growing more and more boisterous, blowing up great mountains of grey cloud out of the East, chasing them helter-skelter across the sky, tearing them into long ribbons and thrashing them all together into one whirling tangle, through which the harassed moon can scarcely find her way. The late traveller has many an airy buffet to withstand ere he can top the last ascent and see the hamlet outlined in a sudden glint of watery moonlight at his feet. Those who lie abed are roused by the moaning in the eaves, to mutter fearfully, "The witches are abroad tonight!"

The witch lives by herself in a dingle, a hundred yards beyond the last cottage of the hamlet. The dingle is a wilderness of brushwood, through which a twisted pathway leads to the witch's door. Matted branches overhang her roof-tree, and even when the moon, breaking for a moment from its net of cloud, sends down a brighter ray than ordinary, it does but emphasise the secretiveness of the ancient moss-grown thatch and the ill-omened plants, henbane, purple nightshade, or white bryony, that cluster round the walls. He were a bold villager who dared venture anywhere within the Witch's dingle on such a night as this. The very wind wails among the clashing branches in a subdued key, very different from its boisterous carelessness on the open downs beyond.

There is but one room—and that of the barest —in the witch's cottage. The village children, who whisper of hoarded wealth as old Mother Hackett passes them in the gloaming, little know how scant is the fare and small the grace they must look for who have sold themselves to such a master. She sleeps upon the earthen floor, with garnered pine-needles for mattress. She has a broken stool to sit on, and a great iron pot hangs above the slumbering embers on the clay hearth.

Scary Witch on Her Broomstick

It wants still an hour to midnight, this eve of May Day, when there comes a stirring among these same embers. They are thrust aside, and up from beneath them Something heaves its way into the room. It is the size of a fox, black and hairy, shapeless and with many feet. From somewhere in its middle two green eyes shed a baleful light that horribly illuminates the room. It moves across the floor, after the manner of a great caterpillar, and as it nears her the witch casts a skinny arm abroad and mutters in her sleep. It reaches the bed, lifts itself upon it, and mumbles something in her ear. She awakes, rises upon her elbow, and replies peevishly. She has no fear of the Thing—it is a familiar visitant. She is angry, and scolds it in a shrill old voice for disturbing her too soon. Has she not the Devil's marks upon her—breast and thigh— round, blue marks that are impervious to all pain from without, but itch and throb when it is time for her to go about her devilish business? The Thing takes her scoldings lightly, twitting her with having overslept herself at the last Sabbath —which she denies. They fall a-jesting; she calls it Tom—Vinegar Tom; and they laugh together over old exploits and present purposes.

A moonbeam glints through a hole in the thatch. Where the witch has lain now sits a black cat, larger than any of natural generation— as large, almost, as a donkey. It talks still with the witch's voice, and lingers awhile, the two pairs of green eyes watching each other through the darkness. At last, with a careless greeting, it bounds across the floor, leaps up the wall to the chimney opening, and is gone. The shapeless Thing remains upon the bed. Its sides quiver, it chuckles beneath its breath in a way halfhuman, yet altogether inhuman and obscene.

The black cat is hastening towards the hamlet under the shadow of the brushwood. When she comes within sight of the end house, she leaves the path and strikes out into the gorse-clad waste beyond the pasture, keeping to it until she is opposite the cottage of Dickon the waggoner. A child has been born, three days back, to Dickon and Meg his wife. It is not yet baptised, for the priest lives four miles away, beyond the downs, and Dickon has been too pressed with work to go for him. To-morrow will be time enough, for it is the healthiest child, not to say the most beautiful, the gossips have ever set eyes upon. Perhaps, if Meg had not forgotten in her newfound happiness how, just after her wedding, when old Mother Hackett passed her door, she made the sign of the cross and cried out upon the old dame for a foul witch, she might not be sleeping so easily now with her first-born on her bosom.

This Image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1923 are copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case 1908) are now in the public domain.

TEXT and IMAGE CREDIT: The book of witches

Title: The book of witches, ATLA monograph preservation program. Author: Oliver Madox Hueffer. Publisher: Eveleigh Nash, 1908. Original from: Harvard University. Digitized: Dec 3, 2007. Length: 335 pages. Subjects: Body, Mind & Spirit › Witchcraft & Wicca. Body, Mind & Spirit / Magick Studies. Body, Mind & Spirit / Witchcraft & Wicca. Witchcraft

Friday, September 23, 2011

First Airship Powered by an Engine Henri Giffard

September 24, 1852, The first airship powered by an engine, in this case steam, created by Henri Giffard, travels 17 miles from Paris to Trappes.

The illustrious Henri Giffard was perhaps the first aeronautical engineer adequately endowed and circumstanced to realize, on a practical scale, General Meusnier's well pondered and truly scientific plans for a motor balloon. He had studied in the college of Bourbon, and had worked in the railroad shops of the Paris and St. Germain railway. He had further equipped himself by making free balloon ascensions, under the auspices of Eugene Godard, for the purpose of studying the atmosphere; and by building light engines, one of which weighed 100 pounds, and developed three horse power.

Finally in 1851 he patented an air ship, consisting of an elongated bag and car, propelled by a screw driven by a steam engine. lie had not the means to build such a vessel, but he had the genius and training necessary to construct it, and at the same time enough enthusiasm and persuasive power to induce his friends, David and Sciama, to loan him the requisite funds.

Giffard's first dirigible was successful in both design and operation. It consisted of a spindleshaped bag covered with a net whose cords were drawn down and attached to a horizontal pole, from which the car and motor were suspended, and at the end of which was a triangular sail serving as a rudder. To guard against fire, the furnace of the vertical coke-burning boiler was shielded by wire gauze, like a miner's lamp, and the draft, taken from its top through a downward pointing smoke pipe, was ejected below the car by force of exhaust steam, from the engine, thus obviating, as Giffard asserted, all danger from the use of fire near an inflammable gas.

First Airship Powered by an Engine

The car hung twenty feet below the suspension pole, and carried a three horse-power engine driving a three-blade propeller 11 feet in diameter, making 110 turns a minute. The motor complete, including the engine and boiler without supplies, weighed 110 pounds per horse power. The bag measured 143 feet long, 39 feet in diameter, and 75,000 cubic feet in volume. Giffard reports of his first voyage, made from the Hippodrome in Paris at five fifteen o'clock, September 23, 1852, that although he could not sail directly against the strong wind then blowing, he could attain a speed of six to ten feet per second relatively to the air, and he could easily guide the vessel by turning her rudder. He continued his journey till nightfall, then made a good landing, near Trappes, and by ten o'clock was back in Paris.

This Image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1923 are copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case 1911) are now in the public domain.

TEXT and IMAGE CREDIT: Title: Aƫrial navigation: a popular treatise on the growth of air craft and on aƫronautical meteorology. Author: Albert Francis Zahm Publisher: D. Appleton and company, 1911. Original: from the University of California. Digitized: Oct 23, 2007. Length: 494 pages Subjects: Aeronautics, Meteorology.

Tuesday, September 20, 2011

Milti-Colored Flowers, Leaves and Peppers

HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION: The evolution of plant classification is an interesting study. We note especially the gradual perception of the fact that obvious characters are not the most important and may be of little or no systematic value. We are still a long way from a perfect arrangement, but the most approved modern system differs from the ancient grouping of plants by Aristotle and Theophrastus into trees, shrubs and herbs mainly in the subordination of the obvious to the really important.

The discrimination of what was important came only with the knowledge of increasing numbers of plants and their patient study. Continued observation forced certain facts on the observers' minds, and the genius of individual workers by supplying a broad general view brought the facts more and more into a system.

It is interesting to note the gradual perfection of a classification of plants by men working, so to speak, in the dark and unable to give any valid reason for the subordination of some characteristic and the importance they attached to others. We think to-day that the doctrine of descent is the key to a perfect system, and an arrangement of plants is more or less perfect or natural according as it expresses their natural relationship, or brings together those plants which are genealogically most nearly related, and keeps them further and further apart according to the degree of remoteness of a common ancestor.

Systematic botany began with the herbals of the sixteenth century. In these we find a return to nature and a departure from the so-called philosophy which, since the earlier efforts of Aristotle, Theophrastus, Pliny and Dioscorides, had distorted the study of plants and enveloped it in an ever increasing mist of fancy.

Milti-Colored Flowers, Leaves and Peppers

Instead of refurbishing the old descriptions of the Greek and Roman writers with additions drawn from imagination or hearsay, scientific men like Brunfels, Fuchs, Bock and de l'Obel went back to nature, collected the plants of their own country and wrote careful descriptions of them and had wood-cuts made, some of which are perfect examples of their kind. They described not only the plants of their immediate neighbourhood but those procured by travel or in other ways from distant parts of their own country or from abroad. Their aim was to bring together as many plants as possible and the superiority of a new herbal depended largely on the number of novelties which it contained.

Milti-Colored Flowers, Leaves and Peppers

Milti-Colored Flowers, Leaves and Peppers

I, (sookietex) the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. This applies worldwide. In case this is not legally possible, I grant any entity the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law.

If These images is subject to copyright in your jurisdiction, i (sookietex) the copyright holder have irrevocably released all rights to it, allowing it to be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, used, modified, built upon, or otherwise exploited in any way by anyone for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial, with or without attribution of the author, as if in the public domain.

TEXT CREDIT: The classification of flowering plants, Volume 1 Cambridge biological series
The Classification of Flowering Plants, Alfred Barton Rendle
Author Alfred Barton Rendle. Edition 2. Publisher: University Press, 1904. Original from: Harvard University. Digitized: Jun 4, 2008.

Subjects: Science › Life Sciences › Biology › Molecular Biology Botany Nature / Flowers Plants Science / Life Sciences / Biology / Molecular Biology Science / Life Sciences / Botany

Monday, September 19, 2011

Unicorn The Ki-Lin

Turning to the Chinese classics and books of antiquity, we find references, sometimes vague and mythical, sometimes exact, to several distinct unicorn animals. These may be enumerated as:—

f 1. The Ki-Lin, represented in Japan by the Kirin.

2. The King.

3. The Kioh Twan.

4. ThePoh.

5. The Hiai Chai.

6. The Too Jon Sheu.

Besides these there are clear descriptions of the rhinoceros, which cannot in any way be confounded with the above. The only one of these popularly familiar is the Ki-Lin, the history of which is interwoven with that of remote ages. The first mention of it is made in the Bamboo Books—only in that part, however, of them which is apparently a commentary, note, or subsequent addition, though some authorities hold it to be a portion of the actual text. The work states that, during the reign of Hwang-Ti (b.c. 2697), Ki-Lins appeared in the parks.

Their appearance was generally supposed to signalise the reign of an upright monarch, and Confucius considered that the appearance of one during his epoch was a bad omen, as it did not harmonise with the troubled state of the times. The name Ki-Lin is a generic or dual word, composed of those of the Ki and the Lin, the respective male and female of the creature.

the Ki-lin. (After a modern Chinese painting.)

This peculiar species of word formation is adopted in other instances in reference to birds and animals; thus we have the male Fung and the female Hwang united in the Fung Hwang, or so-called Chinese phoenix, and the Yuen and Yang in the Yuen Yang, or mandarin duck.

Sometimes the word Lin alone is used with the same generic meaning.

The 'Rh Ya, in the original text, defines the Lin as having a Kiun's body (the Kiun is a kind of muntjack or deer), an ox's tail, and one horn. The commentary states that the tip of the horn is fleshy, and that the King Yang chapter of the " Spring and Autumn Annals " of Confucius defines it as a horned Kiun.

Title: Mythical monsters. Author: Charles Gould. Publisher: W.H. Allen & Co., 1886. Original from: Library of Catalonia. Digitized: Oct 31, 2008. Length: 407 pages. Subjects: Animals, Animals fabulosos.

Unicorn The Ki-Lin

This Image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1923 are copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case 1886) are now in the public domain.

This image is also in the public domain in countries that figure copyright from the date of death of the artist (post mortem auctoris) in this case John Dickson Batten (October 8, 1860 - August 5, 1932) and that most commonly runs for a period of 50 to 70 years from the last day of that year.

TEXT and IMAGE CREDIT: Mythical monsters

Saturday, September 17, 2011

Unicorns

Unicorns Title: Europa's fairy book Author: Joseph Jacobs. Illustrated (Unicorns) by: John Dickson Batten (October 8, 1860 - August 5, 1932). Publisher: G. P. Putnam's sons, 1916. Original from: the University of Michigan. Digitized: Aug 17, 2006. Length: 264 pages. Subjects: Fairy tales.

This Image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1923 are copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case 1886) are now in the public domain.

This image is also in the public domain in countries that figure copyright from the date of death of the artist (post mortem auctoris) in this case John Dickson Batten (October 8, 1860 - August 5, 1932) and that most commonly runs for a period of 50 to 70 years from the last day of that year.

A Belief in the unicorn, like that in the dragon, appears to have obtained among both Eastern and Western authors, at a very early period. In this case, however, it has survived the revulsion from a fatuous confidence in the fables and concocted specimens of the Middle Ages, and even now the existence or non-existence of this remarkable animal remains a debateable question.

Unicorns

Until within a late period occasional correspondents of the South African journals continued to assert its existence, basing their communications on the reports of hunters from the interior, while but a few hundred years since travellers spoke of actually seeing it or of passing through countries in which its existence was absolutely affirmed to them. Horns, generally those of the narwhal, but occasionally of one species of rhinoceros, were brought home and deposited in museums as those of the veritable unicorn, or sold, under the same pretext, for large sums, on account of their reputed valuable medicinal properties.* The animal is variously described as resembling a horse or some kind of deer; this description may possibly refer to some animal of a type intermediate to them, now almost, if not quite, extinct. In some instances it is supposed that a species of rhinoceros is indicated.

TEXT CREDIT: Mythical monsters By Charles Gould

Friday, September 16, 2011

Albert Szent-Gyorgyi

Title: [Albert Szent-Gyorgyi at the time of his NIH appointment] Description: Szent-Gyorgyi was a research fellow at the National Institutes of Health from 1948 to 1950. Number of Image Pages: 1 (375,421 Bytes) Date Supplied: ca. 1948

Creator: McGuire, J. W. National Institutes of Health. Photographic Research Section. Source: Original Repository: National Library of Medicine. Prints and Photographs Collection

Rights: This item is in the public domain. It may be used without permission.

Exhibit Categories: Biographical Information. The Institute for Muscle Research, 1947-1972 Unique Identifier: WGBBCN Document Type: Photographic prints.

Albert Szent-Gyorgyi . Born: September 16, 1893. Budapest, Austria-Hungary Died: October 22, 1986 (aged 93) Woods Hole, Massachusetts, United States. Residence: Hungary. United States. Citizenship: Hungary, United States.

Fields Physiology: Biochemistry. Institutions: University of Szeged, University of Cambridge. Alma mater: Semmelweis University, MD. University of Cambridge, PhD. Doctoral advisor: Frederick Gowland Hopkins: Known for vitamin C, discovering the components and reactions of the citric acid cycle.

Albert Szent-Gyorgyi

Thursday, September 15, 2011

Signs of the Zodiac

Signs of the Zodiac LESSON XIV. ZODIAC.

Question. What is the Zodiac?

Answer. It is a circular belt in the heavens 16 degrees wide; 8 degrees on each side .of the ecliptic.

Q. How is the zodiac divided'

A. It is divided into 12 equal parts, called signs or constellations of the zodiac.

Q. How is each sign divided?

A. Each sign is divided into 30 degrees; each degree into 60 minutes; each minute into 60 seconds, &c. Q. What great circle is in the middle of the zodiac?

A. The ecliptic, or orbit of the earth.

Q. What are the names of the constellations of the zodiac and the signs of the ecliptic?

A. Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricornus, Aquarius, and Pisces.

Q. Do the constellations of the zodiac and the signs of the ecliptic occupy the same places in the heavens?

A. They do not: the signs in the ecliptic have fallen back of the constellations about 31 degrees.

Q. Did the constellations of the zodiac and signs of the ecliptic ever correspond?

A. They corresponded to each other about 22 centuries ago.

Q. What is the cause of the falling back of the signs of the ecliptic among the constellations?

A. It is caused by the retrograde motion of the equinoxes. (note.)

V- Upon what do the seasons depend?

.4. They depend upon the revolution of the earth from one equinox to the same, again.

Q. Does the earth revolve around the sun in exactly the same time that it moves from one equinca to the same equinox again?

A. It moves from either equinox to the same again, seventeen minutes sooner, than around the sun.

Signs of the Zodiac

Smith's illustrated astronomy By Asa Smith

Title: Smith's illustrated astronomy. Author: Asa Smith. Publisher: Cady, 1848. Original from: Princeton University. Digitized: Feb 26, 2009. Length: 68 pages. Subjects Science › Astronomy. Astronomy. Science / Astronomy.

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1848, by Asa Smith, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the Southern District of New York.

This Image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1923 are copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case 1848) are now in the public domain.

Wednesday, September 14, 2011

Nine Banded Armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus

Nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus

Description: The nine-banded armadillo ranges in color from brownish-black to gray, with yellowish-white hairs. The body is covered with shell made of horny plates joined by leathery skin. They have poor eyesight but have a keen sense of smell.

Life History: Armadillos are known for their digging ability and can be very destructive, causing damage to crops and ground nesting animals. Another interesting fact about armadillos; they are the only other mammals, besides humans, that can suffer from leprosy.

Distribution: Native to Central and South America but has been expanding its range into the southeastern United States. It currently inhabits eight states in the U.S. - Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, and Georgia.

Description: Lithograph of a nine-banded armadillo from the 1918 National Geographic Small Mammal series. Date: 1918.

Author: Louis Agassiz Fuertes (1874–1927) Description: American artist. Date of birth / death: February 7, 1874 - August 22, 1927. Location of birth / death: Ithaca, New York, Ithaca, New York. Work period: 1896–1927. Work location: Ithaca, New York.

Nine Banded Armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus

This Image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1923 are copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case 1918) are now in the public domain.

This file is also in the public domain in countries that figure copyright from the date of death of the artist (post mortem auctoris in this case Louis Agassiz Fuertes (1874–1927), and that most commonly runs for a period of 50 to 70 years from December 31 of that year.

TEXT CREDIT: National Biological Information Infrastructure

Tuesday, September 13, 2011

Cards Attack Alice Adventures in Wonderland

The Knave shook his head sadly. "Do I look like it?" he said. (Which he certainly did not, being made entirely of cardboard.)

"All right, so far," said the King, as he went on muttering over the verses to himself: "'We know it to be true—' that's the jury, of course—'If she should push the matter on'—that must be the Queen—'What would become of you?'—What, indeed!—'I gave her one, they gave him two—' why, that must be what he did with the tarts, you know——"

"But it goes on 'they all returned from him to you,'" said Alice.

"Why, there they are!" said the King triumphantly, pointing to the tarts on the table. "Nothing can be clearer than that. Then again—'before she had this fit—' you never had fits, my dear, I think?" he said to the Queen.

"Never!" said the Queen furiously, throwing[158] an inkstand at the Lizard as she spoke. (The unfortunate little Bill had left off writing on his slate with one finger, as he found it made no mark; but he now hastily began again, using the ink, that was trickling down his face, as long as it lasted.)

"Then the words don't fit you," said the King, looking round the court with a smile. There was a dead silence.

"It's a pun!" the King added in an angry tone, and everybody laughed.

"Let the jury consider their verdict," the King said, for about the twentieth time that day.

"No, no!" said the Queen. "Sentence first—verdict afterwards."

"Stuff and nonsense!" said Alice loudly. "The idea of having the sentence first!"

"Hold your tongue!" said the Queen, turning purple.

"I won't!" said Alice.

"Off with her head!" the Queen shouted at the top of her voice. Nobody moved.

"Who cares for you?" said Alice (she had grown to her full size by this time). "You're nothing but a pack of cards!"

At this the whole pack rose up into the air, and came flying down upon her: she gave a little scream, half of fright and half of anger, and tried to beat them off, and found herself lying on the bank, with her head in the lap of her sister, who was gently brushing away some dead leaves that had fluttered down from the trees upon her face.

"Wake up, Alice dear!" said her sister. "Why, what a long sleep you've had!"

Cards Attack Alice Adventures in Wonderland

Title: Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. London: William Heinemann, 1907. Illustrated by Arthur Rackham (19 September 1867 – 6 September 1939). With a Proem by Austin Dobson. Author: Lewis Carroll. Illustrator: Arthur Rackham

This Image (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1923 are copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case 1907) are now in the public domain.

This file is also in the public domain in countries that figure copyright from the date of death of the artist (post mortem auctoris in this case Arthur Rackham (19 September 1867 – 6 September 1939), and that most commonly runs for a period of 50 to 70 years from December 31 of that year.

Monday, September 12, 2011

The Blue Fairy and Pinocchio Clip Art

The Blue Fairy and Pinocchio Clip Art - Shortly afterwards a beautiful little carriage came out of the coach-house. The cushions were stuffed with canary feathers and it was lined on the inside with whipped cream, custard and vanilla wafers. The little carriage was drawn by a hundred pairs of white mice, and the Poodle, seated on the coach-box, cracked his whip from side to side like a driver when he is afraid that he is behind time.

Scarcely had a quarter of an hour passed, when the carriage returned. The Fairy, who was waiting at the door of the house, took the poor puppet in her arms and carried him into a little room that was wainscoted with mother-of-pearl. She sent at once to summon the most famous doctors in the neighborhood.

They came immediately, one after the other: namely, a Crow, an Owl, and a Talking-Cricket.

"I wish to know from you, gentlemen," said the Fairy, "if this unfortunate puppet is alive or dead!"

The Blue Fairy and Pinocchio Clip Art


The Blue Fairy and Pinocchio Clip Art

At this request the Crow, advancing first, felt Pinocchio's pulse; he then felt his nose and then the little toe of his foot: and, having done this carefully, he pronounced solemnly the following words:

"To my belief the puppet is already quite dead; but, if unfortunately he should not be dead, then it would be a sign that he is still alive!"

"I regret," said the Owl, "to be obliged to contradict the Crow, my illustrious friend and colleague; but, in my opinion the puppet is still alive; but, if unfortunately he should not be alive, then it would be a sign that he is dead indeed!"

"And you—have you nothing to say?" asked the Fairy of the Talking-Cricket.

"In my opinion, the wisest thing a prudent doctor can do, when he does not know what he is talking about, is to be silent. For the rest, that puppet there has a face that is not new to me. I have known him for some time!"

Pinocchio, who up to that moment had lain immovable, like a real piece of wood, was seized with a fit of convulsive trembling that shook the whole bed.

"That puppet there," continued the Talking-Cricket, "is a confirmed rogue."

Pinocchio opened his eyes, but shut them again immediately.

"He is a ragamuffin, a do-nothing, a vagabond."

Pinocchio hid his face beneath the clothes.

"That puppet there is a disobedient son who will make his poor father die of a broken heart!"

At that instant a suffocated sound of sobs and crying was heard in the room. Imagine everybody's astonishment when, having raised the sheets a little, it was discovered that the sounds came from Pinocchio.

"When a dead person cries, it is a sign that he is on the road to get well," said the Crow solemnly.

"I grieve to contradict my illustrious friend and colleague," added the Owl; "but for me, when the dead person cries, it is a sign that he is sorry to die."

The Blue Fairy

Title: Pinocchio The Tale of a Puppet. Author: C. Collodi. Illustrator: Alice Carsey. Whitman Publishing Co. RACINE, WISCONSIN COPYRIGHT 1916 BY Whitman Publishing Co. RACINE, WISCONSIN. PRINTED IN U.S.A.

This IMAGE (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case c 1916) are now in the public domain.

A.I. Artificial Intelligence. image/Alice Carsey text/William Butler Yeats inspiration/Stanley Kubrick mashup/editing/sookietex More about this image and story at Public Domain Clip Art - http://publicdomainclip-art.blogspot.com/2011/09/blue-fairy-and-pinocchio.html

Come away, O human child! To the waters and the wild! With a faery, hand in hand, For the world's more full of weeping than you can understand.

Sunday, September 11, 2011

The World Trade Center attack was awful and my cousin's leg got broken from the people running on him

Title: The World Trade Center attack was awful and my cousin's leg got broken from the people running on him / Erik Colbourne.

Creator(s): Colbourne, Erik, artist. Date Created/Published: [2001] Medium: 1 drawing : graphite, colored pencil, crayon, and fluid marker. Summary: Drawing shows World Trade Center towers, New York City, with text written around them and crying eyes in upper right corner. Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-ppmsca-01689 (digital file from original)

Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication. For information, see Exit Art's "Reactions" Exhibition Collection,(http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/res/356_exit.html) Call Number: LOT 13520, no. 0410 [P&P] Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA.

Notes: Forms part of: Exit Art Gallery Reactions Collection: A Global Response to the 9/11 Attacks. Title from item. Artist is affiliated with East Harlem Tutorial program.

Subjects: World Trade Center (New York, N.Y.)--Disasters--2000-2010. September 11 Terrorist Attacks, 2001. Format: Children's art--2000-2010. Graphite drawings--2000-2010.

Collections: Miscellaneous Items in High Demand

Exit Art's "Reactions" Exhibition Collection, Rights and Restrictions Information

The World Trade Center attack was awful and my cousin's leg got broken from the people running on him

Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., 20540-4730

The use of artworks included in Exit Art's "Reactions" Exhibition Collection is unrestricted. Privacy and publicity rights may apply. Access: Permitted; subject to P&P policy on serving originals.

Reproduction (photocopying, hand-held camera copying, photoduplication and other forms of copying allowed by "fair use"): Permitted, subject to P&P policy on copying, which prohibits photocopying of original artworks.

Publication and other forms of distribution: Permitted. Rights to works in Exit Art's "Reactions" Exhibition Collection are held by Exit Art, which has stipulated that "... we desire that the materials be free for use by the public." Privacy and publicity rights may also apply.

Credit Line: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, Exit Art's "Reactions" Exhibition Collection [reproduction number, e.g., LC-USZ62-123456]

Saturday, September 10, 2011

World Trade Center towers covered with flowers

World Trade Center towers covered with flowers. Title: [World Trade Center towers covered with flowers] / Jen Kim. Creator(s): Kim, Jen, artist / Date Created/Published: [2001] Medium: 1 painting : acrylic, color. Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-ppmsca-01666 (digital file from original)

Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication. For information, see Exit Art's "Reactions" Exhibition Collection,(http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/res/356_exit.html)

Call Number: LOT 13520, no. 1175 [P&P] Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

Notes: Title devised by Library staff. Forms part of: the Exit Art Gallery Reactions Collection: A Global Response to the 9/11 Attacks. Exhibited: Witness and Response: September 11 Acquisitions at the Library of Congress, 2002.

Subjects: World Trade Center (New York, N.Y.)--Disasters--2000-2010. September 11 Terrorist Attacks, 2001.

Format: Paintings--Color--2000-2010. Collections: Miscellaneous Items in High Demand.

Exit Art's "Reactions" Exhibition Collection. Rights and Restrictions Information

Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., 20540-4730

The use of artworks included in Exit Art's "Reactions" Exhibition Collection is unrestricted. Privacy and publicity rights may apply. Access: Permitted; subject to P&P policy on serving originals.

Reproduction (photocopying, hand-held camera copying, photoduplication and other forms of copying allowed by "fair use"): Permitted, subject to P&P policy on copying, which prohibits photocopying of original artworks.

World Trade Center towers covered with flowers

Publication and other forms of distribution: Permitted. Rights to works in Exit Art's "Reactions" Exhibition Collection are held by Exit Art, which has stipulated that "... we desire that the materials be free for use by the public." Privacy and publicity rights may also apply.

Credit Line: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, Exit Art's "Reactions" Exhibition Collection [reproduction number, e.g., LC-USZ62-123456]

Friday, September 09, 2011

Marina, the 25-foot tall Missoni-clad doll who likes to blogger and tweet

Marina, the 25-foot tall Missoni-clad doll who likes to blogger and tweet. Staffers lift Marina's hands, so that she could send out her tweets on a giant iPhone.

Marina is part of Target’s promotion to highlight the designer collaboration.

Missoni for Target pop-up shop at Bryant Park Promo at Lincoln Center on Manhattan's upper westside, Richard Tucker Square, Broadway between 65th and 66th streets. A bust by Milton Hebald (b. 1917) depicts opera star Richard Tucker (1913–1975) Tucker was born in Brooklyn in 1913, and he worked as a cantor before making his debut with New York’s Metropolitan Opera in 1945.

I, (sookietex) the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. This applies worldwide. In case this is not legally possible, I grant any entity the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law.

If This image is subject to copyright in your jurisdiction, i (sookietex) the copyright holder have irrevocably released all rights to it, allowing it to be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, used, modified, built upon, or otherwise exploited in any way by anyone for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial, with or without attribution of the author, as if in the public domain.

Marina, the 25-foot tall Missoni-clad doll who likes to blogger and tweet

Marina, the 25-foot tall Missoni-clad doll who likes to blogger and tweet

Thursday, September 08, 2011

Carlisle Football Team

Title: Carlisle football team Creator(s): Bain News Service, publisher Date Created / Published: [no date recorded on caption card] Medium: 1 negative : glass ; 5 x 7 in. or smaller. Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-ggbain-17790 (digital file from original negative)

The Carlisle Indians football team represented the Carlisle Indian Industrial School in intercollegiate football competition. The program was active from 1893 until 1917,

Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication.

George Grantham Bain Collection Rights and Restrictions Information

There are no known restrictions on the photographs in the George Grantham Bain Collection. Access: Permitted; subject to P&P policy on serving originals.

Reproduction (photocopying, hand-held camera copying, photoduplication and other forms of copying allowed by "fair use"): Permitted; subject to P&P policy on copying.

Publication and other forms of distribution: No known restrictions. Credit Line: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, [reproduction number, e.g., LC-B2-1234] Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., 20540-4730

Call Number: LC-B2- 3294-2 [P&P] Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print

Notes: Title from unverified data provided by the Bain News Service on the negatives or caption cards. Forms part of: George Grantham Bain Collection (Library of Congress).

General information about the Bain Collection is available at http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.ggbain

Format: Glass negatives. Collections: Bain Collection

Carlisle football team

Wednesday, September 07, 2011

The Galveston Hurricane of 1900

Title: Floating wreckage near Texas City - typical scene for miles along the water front - Galveston disaster. Creator(s): Underwood & Underwood., Date Created/Published: New York : Underwood & Underwood, c1900. Medium: 1 photographic print on stereo card : stereograph. Reproduction Number: LC-USZ62-122502 (b&w film copy neg.)

The Hurricane of 1900 made landfall on the city of Galveston Texas, on September 8, 1900. It had estimated winds of 145 miles per hour at landfall, making it a Category 4 storm on the Saffir-Simpson Scale. It was the deadliest hurricane in US history, causing an estimated death toll between 6,000 and 12,000 individuals;

At the time of the 1900 storm the highest point in the city of Galveston was 8.7 feet above sea level. The hurricane brought with it a storm surge of over 15 feet which washed over the entire island. Over 3,600 homes were destroyed. The few buildings which survived, mostly houses along the Strand District, are today maintained as tourist attractions.

Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication.

Call Number: LOT 11002 [P&P] [P&P] Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

Notes: DR1930 U.S. Copyright Office. Subjects: Hurricanes--Texas--Galveston--1900. Waterfronts--Texas--Galveston--1900.

Format: Photographic prints--1900. Stereographs--1900. Collections: Stereograph Cards

Galveston Hurricane of 1900

Tuesday, September 06, 2011

Robert the Bruce reviewing His Troops Before the Battle of Bannockburn

THE EXPEDITION AGAINST THE SCOTS A.D. 1314 CASSELL'S ILLUSTRATED HISTORY OF ENGLAND.

VOL. I THE KING'S EDITION CASSELL AND COMPANY, LIMITED LONDON, NEW YORK, TORONTO AND MELBOURNE, MCMIX

Robert Bruce, who had been lying before Stirling awaiting the result of Sir Philip Mowbray's mission to London, now saw that the fate of the kingdom must be decided on or near that spot. His army was much inferior to the English one in numbers, amounting to between 30,000 and 40,000 men. But then they were tried troops, fighting for the very existence of their country, and under such leaders as Robert Bruce, Randolph, and Douglas men whom they had followed into exploits almost miraculous.

The English army was far better armed and provided, except in one particular, and that the most essential of all a commander. Instead of being led by a man of courage, experience, and sagacity, they had a timid, effeminate puppet; and when so much depended on the commander-in-chief even more than at the present day that single circumstance was fatal.

Bruce made preparations for the decisive struggle with his usual ability. He had collected his forces in the forest called Torwood ; but as he knew the superiority of the English, not merely in numbers, but in their heavy-armed cavalry (far better mounted and equipped than his own) and in their archers (the very best in the world), he determined to provide against these advantages. He therefore led his army into a plain on the south side of Stirling, called the New Park, close beneath which the English army would be obliged to pass through a swampy country broken up with water courses, while the Scots stood on firm, dry ground.

Robert the Bruce reviewing His Troops Before the Battle of Bannockburn

Robert the Bruce reviewing His Troops Before the Battle of Bannockburn.

Edmund Blair Leighton (1853–1922) signs his woodcuts as EBL Description: British painter. Date of birth / death: September 21, 1853 September 1, 1922. Location of birth / death: London, England. Bedford Park, London, England.

This IMAGE (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case c 1909) are now in the public domain.

This image is also in the public domain in countries that figure copyright from the date of death of the artist (post mortem auctoris) in this case Edmund Blair Leighton (1853–1922) and that most commonly runs for a period of 50 to 70 years from the last day of that year.

Edmund Blair Leighton [Public domain or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Happy Birthday Robert I (July 11, 1274), popularly known as Robert the Bruce, was King of Scots from 1306 until his death in 1329. Robert was one of the most famous warriors of his generation, eventually leading Scotland during the Wars of Scottish Independence against England. He fought successfully during his reign to regain Scotland's place as an independent nation, and is today remembered in Scotland as a national hero.

Robert the Bruce reviewing His Troops Before the Battle of Bannockburn. More about this image and story at Public Domain Clip Art - http://publicdomainclip-art.blogspot.com/2011/09/robert-bruce-reviewing-his-troops.html

Monday, September 05, 2011

Labor Day parade, marchers of Russian Labor Assn., New York



Title: Labor Day parade, marchers of Russian Labor Assn., New York. Creator(s): Bain News Service, publisher. Date Created/Published: 5/1/09 (date created or published later by Bain)

The George Grantham Bain Collection represents the photographic files of one of America's earliest news picture agencies. The collection richly documents sports events, theater, celebrities, crime, strikes, disasters, political activities including the woman suffrage campaign, conventions and public celebrations. The photographs Bain produced and gathered for distribution through his news service were worldwide in their coverage, but there was a special emphasis on life in New York City. The bulk of the collection dates from the 1900s to the mid-1920s, but scattered images can be found as early as the 1860s and as late as the 1930s.

Medium: 1 negative : glass ; 5 x 7 in. or smaller. Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-ggbain-03322 (digital file from original neg.)

Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication. There are no known restrictions on the photographs in the George Grantham Bain Collection. Publication and other forms of distribution: No known restrictions.

Credit Line: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, [reproduction number, e.g., LC-B2-1234]

Call Number: LC-B2- 696-3 [P&P] Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print

Labor Day parade, marchers of Russian Labor Assn., New York

Notes: Forms part of: George Grantham Bain Collection (Library of Congress). Title from unverified data provided by the Bain News Service on the negatives or caption cards. General information about the Bain Collection is available at http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.ggbain

Subjects: New York children. Format: Glass negatives. Collections: Bain Collection.

Sunday, September 04, 2011

Grover Cleveland Alexander Philadelphia Phillies NL

Title: [Grover Cleveland Alexander, Philadelphia NL (baseball)] Creator(s): Bain News Service, publisher Date Created / Published: [1917] Medium: 1 negative : glass ; 5 x 7 in. or smaller.
Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-ggbain-24543 (digital file from original negative)

Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication.

George Grantham Bain Collection. Rights and Restrictions Information. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., 20540-4730

There are no known restrictions on the photographs in the George Grantham Bain Collection.

Access: Permitted; subject to P&P policy on serving originals. Reproduction (photocopying, hand-held camera copying, photoduplication and other forms of copying allowed by "fair use"): Permitted; subject to P&P policy on copying. Publication and other forms of distribution: No known restrictions.

Credit Line: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, [reproduction number, e.g., LC-B2-1234]

Call Number: LC-B2- 4229-3 [P&P] Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print

Notes: Original data provided by the Bain News Service on the negatives or caption cards: Alexander, Phils. Corrected title and date based on research by the Pictorial History Committee, Society for American Baseball Research, 2006.

Grover Cleveland Alexander Philadelphia NL

Forms part of: George Grantham Bain Collection (Library of Congress). General information about the Bain Collection is available at http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.ggbain

Format: Glass negatives. Collections: Bain Collection.

Saturday, September 03, 2011

Ice Plant Flower (Sesuvium Portulacastrum Aizoaceae)

Ice Plant Flower Sesuvium Portulacastrum Aizoaceae. Sesuvium portulacastrum. Seaside Purslane. Family Aizoaceae.

Local Names.—Chara (Guam); Tarampulit, Karampalit, Dampalit, Bilangbilang (Philippines); Verdolaga de Costa (Cuba). A succulent, branching, prostrate, strand plant of wide tropical distribution, sometimes forming mounds on the sandy beach. Leaves opposite, entire, nearly veinless; flowers axillary, without petals; calyx 5-parted, green outside, purplish or rosecolored within; stamens many; styles 3 to 5; capsule 3 to 5-celled, circumscissile through the middle, the upper part like a lid, falling away when ripe, and leaving the lower part attached to the plant; seeds black, shining, smooth.

The entire plant is eaten cooked like spinach. It is rather salty. In some parts of lndia it is cultivated as a pot herb. References:

Sesuvium portulacastrum Stickman, Herb. Amb. 1754; Amoen. Acad. 4: 136. 1759.

I, (sookietex) the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. This applies worldwide. In case this is not legally possible, I grant any entity the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law.

If This image is subject to copyright in your jurisdiction, i (sookietex) the copyright holder have irrevocably released all rights to it, allowing it to be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, used, modified, built upon, or otherwise exploited in any way by anyone for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial, with or without attribution of the author, as if in the public domain.

Ice Plant Flower (Sesuvium Portulacastrum Aizoaceae)

TEXT CREDIT: Elihu Root collection of United States documents

Friday, September 02, 2011

Mohandas Gandhi Statue Union Square Park

Mohandas Gandhi Statue, Union Square Park. Broadway to 4th Avenue, East 14th Street to East 17th Street. Manhattan New York, New York.

Bronze sculpture depicting Mohandas Gandhi (1869–1948) was sculpted by Kantilal B. Patel (born 1925) and was dedicated on October 2, 1986, the 117th anniversary of Gandhi’s birth. The statue of Gandhi is in the southwest corner of the park.

The monument was donated by the Gandhi Memorial International Foundation and underwritten by Mohan B. Murjani of Murjani International, Ltd.,

I, (sookietex) the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. This applies worldwide. In case this is not legally possible, I grant any entity the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law.

If This image is subject to copyright in your jurisdiction, i (sookietex) the copyright holder have irrevocably released all rights to it, allowing it to be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, used, modified, built upon, or otherwise exploited in any way by anyone for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial, with or without attribution of the author, as if in the public domain.

While no copyright is associated with this PUBLIC DOMAIN image this point is relevant. Publicity rights protects a person’s right to benefit from the commercial value connected with an individual;s work.

Mohandas Gandhi Statue Union Square Park

As a rule, the right to publicity is enforced for commercial reproduction of the name or likeness of a work, under the conditions outlined. The editorial use of a photograph of this work, so long as it does not violate other laws concerning libel or slander, requires only the release of the holder of the copyright of the photograph.

Thursday, September 01, 2011

School Nurse Weighing and Measuring Pupils

REVITALIZING DEVITALIZED CHILDREN. AN OPEN WINDOW EXPERIMENT!

A COMPARISON BETWEEN THE PROGRESS OF PUPILS TAUGHT IN AN OPEN WINDOW CLASS-ROOM AND THAT OF THE PUPILS OF A PARALLEL GRADE TAUGHT IN AN ORDINARILY VENTILATED AND HEATED CLASS-ROOM IN THE SAME SCHOOL BUILDING.

Walter W. Roach, A.M., M.D., Supervising Medical Inspector, Jfth & oth Districts, Philadelphia.

The test was made at the Alexander Dallas Bache School, 22d and Brown Streets, Philadelphia, during the winter session of 1912.

After consultation with Mr. Walter C. Bishop, supervising principal of the above school and Mr. Albert H. Raub, district superintendent, it was decided to devote one class-room, with the heat cut off and the windows wide open, to teaching in nature's air with a minimum of artificial tempering, a normal third grade class the regular third grade work.

It happened that in this same school there was another class of equal number of pupils, of the same grade, occupying a room heated and ventilated in the ordinary way, so that we were able to keep accurate records and make a fair comparison.

In order that there should be no appearance of compulsion in the matter of attendance, the medical supervisor of the district first addressed a letter to the principal expressing the opinion that the stimulating effect of cool fresh air would benefit both pupils and teachers mentally and physically, and asked that some teacher in the school volunteer to teach the children through the winter with the class-room windows wide open. Happily there was no lack of volunteers and the problem of securing a willing teacher was solved.

School Nurse Weighing and Measuring Pupils

The following circular was then addressed to the parents of about sixty of the third grade pupils, explaining the purpose of the movement and enclosing a blank application form to be filled out and signed by those who desired that their children be taught in this open window room.

Bache School, Philadelphia, September 20, 1912. To the Parents:—

Your attention is called to an open window class-room at the Bache School. Its purpose is to give Nature a greater opportunity to help our children to learn rapidly and to grow strong. The cold, fresh air of our new class-room will be soothing to the nerves and stimulating to mind and body.

The occupants of this room will be protected in extremely cold weather with extra wraps and sufficient heat. They will not be subjected to draughts. They will be given exercise and freedom that is not possible in the ordinary class-room. Their physical welfare will be looked after constantly and noted regularly by the Medical Inspector. If you desire your child to be considered with others, as an applicant, please fill out and return enclosed blank.

Yours very truly, Walter C. Bishop, Principal.

This IMAGE (or other media file) is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. This applies to the United States, where Works published prior to 1978 were copyright protected for a maximum of 75 years. See Circular 1 "COPYRIGHT BASICS" PDF from the U.S. Copyright Office. Works published before 1923 (in this case c 1913) are now in the public domain.

Title: American journal of public health: the journal of the American Public Health Association, Volume 3, Issues 1-6. Author: American Public Health Association. Publisher: American Public Health Association, 1913. Original from: the University of California

Digitized: Aug 3, 2007. Subjects: Medical › Public Health Medical / Public Health, Public health

TEXT CREDIT: American journal of public health: the journal of the American Public Health Association, Volume 3, Issues 1-6